Sunday, September 20, 2009

pakistan studies....

Ideology of Pakistan
Definition of Ideology
Science of ideas, visionary speculations, manner of thinking, characteristic of a class or individual, ideas on the basis of some economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Defining ideology, George Lewis says:
“Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy.”
Ideology of Pakistan
Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basic principle being:
“The only sovereigner is Allah.”
Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Quaid-e-Azam once said:
Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.”
From the above statement, it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.
Two Nation Concept
The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles, profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said:
“The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamci laws.”
Thus, this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.
Factors creating the Idea of a Separate Homeland
Ideology of Pakistan was created when Muslims of Indo-Pak Sub Continent developed a specific attitude of mind that they are different from Hindus. This was due to the injustices done to the Muslims by British and Hindus. Some of these are:
1.                Anti Muslim Campaign
The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith, belief, customs and national importance of Muslims because Muslim rebellion was creating much problem for both.
2.                Inacceptance of British Rule
Muslims had been ruling the Sub Continent for ages. Therefore, they could not resist any power over them. When British came to rule the Sub Continent, Muslims were the only nation who opposed them. Thus, in order to gain power, British had to crush the Muslims collectively.
3.                Hindus Betrayed Muslims
In the beginning, Hindus appeared to be on Muslim’s side, but later on their hostility was exposed as they opposed various steps taken by British Government which purely benefited for  Muslims.
4.                Refusal of Muslim identity
British wanted to implement parliamentary system in Sub Continent in which the majority was the power and authority. Due to Hindu majority it was probable that if British left India undivided, it would fall under the Hindus rule. Further more, Hindus did not accept the separate identity of Muslims and thus, there were no chances of freedom even after the British rule.
5.                War of 1857
In 1857, Muslims and Hindus tried to expel the British out of India but failed. Later due to Hindu conspiracies, Muslims were held responsible for it and hence were crushed further by Britishers.
6.                Sir Syed’s Idea
Sir Syed for the first time put down the idea that Muslims are a separate nation. He convinced Muslims to unite themselves in order to have a separate social and political identity.
Basic Points of Ideology of Pakistan
1.      Muslims are different from Hindus in every aspect, their culture, civilization, customs and religion all are entirely different.
2.      The Muslims need a free state for protection of their separate where they can live in accordance with their faith, belief and follow the Islamic codes.
Importance of Ideology in National Life
Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and bring them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.
An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology.
The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohd Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.
Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Quaid-e-Azam’s Sayings
Ideology of Pakistan and Quaid-e-Azam
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the great leader of Muslims of Sub Continent gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal. He had a strong believe in Hindu Muslim unity and was of the opinion that both Hindus and Muslims should launch joint efforts to get rid of British rule.
After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.
Address at Second Round Table Conference in 1931
Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Mulsims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the Second Round Table Conference in 1913:
“The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constitution. Untill you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, untill you do not win their (Mulims) co-operations, any constitution you enforce shall not las for even 24 hours.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory
 Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. He said:
“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.”
He defined the two nation theory as:
“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests."
Address on 23rd March, 1940 – Pakistan Resolution
At the historic session of the Muslim League  at Lahore, he said:
“The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International lwa we are a nation.”
In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940, he said:
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belongs belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interdine and they belong to two different civilization which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”
Address on March 8, 1944
While addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:
“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages, had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia
Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said:
“What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”
Address at Islamia College Peshawar
In 1946, Quaid-e-Azam declared:
“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”
Address on 18th June 1945
In his message to the frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said:
Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims ideology, which has to be preserved which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which w hope, others will share with us.”
The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted a establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.

Ideology of Pakistan in the light of Statements of Allama Iqbal
Allama Iqbal, the poet, philosopher and a great thinker with the help of his poetry tried to awaken the Muslims of the sub-continent. He believed in the separate identity of Muslims as a nation.
In 1930, Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presidential address at Allahbad at the annual session of Muslim League. He said:
"I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States."
He also said:
"India is a continent of human beings belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions ...., I, therefore demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam."
He stressed on the formation of a separate State by saying:
"I would like to see the Punjab, NorthWest Fronties Province, Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State self-government within the British empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of Norht West India."

Initial Difficulties at the Establishment of Pakistan
The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and arduous freedom movement, was infact a great victory of the democratic idea of life. The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu or British dominance. Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August, 1947 said:
“My thoughts are with those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had, including their lives, to make Pakistan possible.”
Initial Difficulties of Pakistan
From its very inception, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were:
1.    Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.
2.    Unfair Boundry Distribution
A boundry commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur, Jullander to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it:
“An unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.”
3.    The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
4.    Division of Military and Financial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, india did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs 750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.
5.    Canal Water Dispute
Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, india stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called “Indus Basin Treaty” was signed between the two countries.
6.    Kashmir Dispute
Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. The Hindu Dogra rule, who was secretly with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-coperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.
7.    Constitutional Problem
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of  unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
8.    Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of following states remained undecided.
The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947.
Hyderabad Deccan
Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian Government and Mount Batten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.
9.    Electricity Problem
Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and of unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said:
“If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force.”
Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavourable circumstances. It had no resources, it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-e-Azam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation. His golden principles “Unity,” “Faith” and “Discipline” gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country. In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948, he told the nation:
“The fondation of your state have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as well as you can.”

Islamic Provisions of Constitution of 1973
On 7th April, 1972 the national assembly of Pakistan appointed a committee to prepare a draft of the permanent constitution of Pakistan. A bill to provide a constitution was introduced by the committee in the Assembly on February2, 1973. The Assembly passed the bill on 10th April, 1973 and at last the constitution came into force on 14th August 1973.
The present constitution (1973) provides for the protection and preservation of Islamic Concept of life. It also attempts to propagate and implement the basic teachings of Islam.
Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution
The  following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of Holy Quran and Sunnah.
1.    Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan shall be known as “Islamic Republic of Pakistan.”
2.    State Religion
Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan.
3.    Sovereignty Belongs to Allah
Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people of Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.
4.    Definition of a Muslim
The constitution also gives the definition of a Muslim. A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah, and in the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H) as the last prophet of Allah has described as a Muslim.
5.    A Muslim to be a President and Prime Minister
The constitution laid down that only Muslims shall be elected President and Prime Minister of Pakistan. Non non-Muslim could hold these offices.
6.    Islamic Way of life
Steps shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.
7.    Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils
The state shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution, gambling and taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements.
8.    Teachings of Holy Quran
The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.
9.    Strengthing Bond, with Muslim World
The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity.
10.           Council of  Islamic Ideology
There is a council of Islamic ideology which shall guide the government in respect of Islamic teachings, their implementation and propagation. Its chairman and members are appointed by President. Although its advice is not binding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law.
11.           Error Free Publication of Quran
The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran.
12.           Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology
The Federal and Provincial Ministers, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology.
13.           Ahmadi’s A Non Muslim Minority
According to the second amendment of 1973 constitution, the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves “Ahmadi’s” were declared as Non-Muslim minority.
The 1973 constitution enlisted the main principles of State Policy Maximum efforts were made to imporve the character of this constitution . Like other constitutions, 1973 constitution of Pakistan also provides for the protection, propagation and enforcement of Islamic Ideology.

Location and Climate  of Pakistan
Geographical Location
Pakistan is situated in continent of Asia between 23.300 and 36.450 latitude (North) and 610 and 75.450 longitude (East). India is situated on Pakistan’s Eastern border, China lies to the North-East while Afghanistan is situated in North-West. In North, only a narrow belt of 15 miles in Afghanistan, called “Wakhan,” separates Pakistan from Russia. To the West lies Iran and in the South is the Arabian Sea.
Area and Population
The total area of Pakistan is 796096 and its population is about 130 million according to 1998 census.
Pakistan comprises of four provinces, viz, Sindh, Baluchistan, the Punjab and the N.W.F.P. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
Importance of Pakistan’s Location
The following discussions throws light on the importance of Pakistan’s location:
1.    Situation
Pakistan is situated in a region of great economic, political and military importance. Among its neighbouring countries are China and Russia which are reckoned to be among the countries recognized as super powers.
2.    Karachi as an Important Port
The industrial progress of the Western countries depends upon the oil of the Gulf States. This oil is carried through Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Karachi is an important port of the Arabian Sea. The Foreign policy of Pakistan can, therefore, affect the movement of oil.
3.    As a center of the Muslim World
Pakistan is situated in the center of the Muslim World. To the west of Pakistan, starting from Afghanistan and Iran lies a chain of Muslim countries passing through Asia and terminating at the Eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean i.e the Middle East, Gulf and Africa. To the east of Pakistan, starting from Bangladesh lies another chain of Muslim countries while to the North there are six Muslim countries which gained independence from Russia in 1991.
4.    Control Over Warm Water
The seas of Russia are mostly snow capped and are not fit for navigation for the larger part of the year. To take active part in international trade, Russia dreams to have control over the warm water of the Indian Sea. But Pakistan is a hurdle in its way and thus enjoys an important position in the scene of international trade.
5.    Position in Third world countries
Pakistan is a great supporter of the unity of the third World countries.
Climate of Pakistan
Climate is an average or general conditions of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall of a place. The climate of Pakistan, on the whole is dry and extreme. It means that the  summers are  extremely hot and winters are extremely cold, and there is a little rainfall during the year.
Seasons of Pakistan
There are the following four seasons in Pakistan:
1.      Summer – May to mid September
2.      Winter – November to February
3.      Autumn – September to November
4.      Spring – March and April
Climatic Regions of Pakistan
In Pakistan climate varies from place to place. Pakistan may be divided into the following four regions according to climate:
The North and North Western Mountainous Area
This region consists of the North and the North-Western Mountainous areas. This region has a very severe winter and the temperature falls below the freezing point. In this area the winter seasons remains from six to eight months. On the other hand, summers of this region are very pleasant.
The Upper Indus Plain
Below the Northern Mountainous Area is the upper Indus plain. In this area the summer is very hot. The months of May, June and first week of July are very hot because in this period there is no rainfall. However, the climate here becomes pleasant when rain falls in July. The winter season of the Upper Indus Plains is very pleasant but it does not last long.
The Coastal Areas and the Lower Indus Valley
The temperature of the coastal areas and the lower Indus valley does not rise due to sea land breeze. In this region rain does not fall, however due to blowing of sea breeze humidity is found in the air. Sea breeze keeps the climate pleasant. There is not much difference in the temperature of different months in this region.
The Plateau of Baluchistan and the Thar Desert
In summer, the temperature of the plateau of Baluchistan and the Thar desert rises. Most of the mountainous regions of Baluchistan are dry and hot. The winter season is very severe in Baluchistan and sometimes snow falls in certain parts.

Nehru Report
Brief Account
In November, 1927, the British Government appointed a statutory commission head by Sir John Simon to inquire into the constitutional affairs of the country. Since, no Indian was present in this commission, the Indians did not welcome the Simon Commission. When the members of this commission were talking about the political situation of India, the Congress called on all parties conferences in Bombay on May 19, 1928. The Muslim League boycotted this conference. The all parties conference appointed a committee headed by Pundit Moti Lal Nehru to submit a report after considering the principles of a constitution for India. The committee recommended a proposal generally known as “Nehru Report.”
Important points of Nehru Report
The main points of Nehru report are as follows:
1.      The Nehru Committee demanded repudiation of separate elections.
2.      It demanded the Form of Government at the center would be Federal with substantial powers invested in the control of government.
3.      It recommended separation of Sindh from Bombay.
4.      It recommended the one-third Muslim representation at the central legislative.
5.      The committee demanded interdiction of reforming Baluchistan and N.W.F.P provinces.
6.      The foreign affairs, defense and army should be placed under the control of parliament and viceroy.
7.      Unitary form of the Government to established in the center.
8.      Hindi should be the official language.
Conclusions from Nehru Report
1.      Nehru’s Recommendations were against the interests of the Muslim Community.
2.      The Muslims could not surrender their right to separate electorates.
3.      The principles of non-reservation and joint electorates were to make their position in Punjab and Bengal provinces.
Reactions towards Nehru Report
The Nehru Report projected the Hindu leaderships mentality ailed at the digestion of the Muslim nation under the cover of one nation in the India-Pakistan Sub Continent.
Since the report was totally against the interests of the Muslims, therefore, Muslim League and other Muslim Parties of the country rejected it. Quaid-e-Azam said:
“The majorities are apt to be tyrannical and oppressive and particularly religious majorities and the minorities, therefore, they have a right to be absolutely secured.”
He was shocked to hear the proposal of Nehru Report, therefore in March,1929, he called a meeting of Muslim League and put forwarded his Fourteen points as the minimum demands for any political settlement.
Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar considered at as an attempt to secure predomination of Hindus over Muslims. His brother, Maulana Shaukat Ali said:
“As a young man he had been a keen owner of grey hounds, but he had never grey hounds deal with hare as the Hindus proposed to deal with the Muslims.”
In a Nut Shell
Thus, the Nehru Report reflected the hostility, mental level and attitude of the Hindus towards the Muslims of India. All its proposals were made disregarding the interests of the Muslims.

Non - Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an important world organization of the third world countries who do not wish to be aligned with any of the big powers. The NAM can be defined as:
“The international forum of the people of the third World who openly condemn and negate the lust for creating th e spheres of influence by the super powers and thus is an important and effective organ against Colonialism and imperialism.”
Reasons for the Formations of NAM
The World War II divided the world into two power blocs. The Western bloc being headed by U.S.A and the socialist bloc being governed by U.S.S.R.
These two superpowers involved in cold war creating great problems for the smaller nations and underdeveloped countries. The best policy for such states would have been to isolate themselves from the cold war of the super powers and fully concentrate on their economic, social and cultural uplift. NAM is an organization to help these nations to exist.
Bandung Conference
A meeting of those countries of the World who had no alignment with any super power was held in Bandung (Indonesia) on April 24, 1955. It was held to discuss the problems faced by Afro-Asian countries which was mainly to avoid the “Tug of War” of the super powers.
Main Features of NAM or Panjshila Principles
The declared principles of NAM are:
1.    Respect of Independence and Sovereignty
To respect each others sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.
2.    Avoid Aggression
To refrain from acts of aggression or use of force against any states.
3.    Non interference
Non interference in others international affairs.
4.    Recognization of Equality and Liberty
To recognize the equality and liberty of all the nations.
5.    Peace
To live in a peaceful atmosphere.
Objective of NAM
1.      To promote good will and cooperation among the Afro-Asian countries.
2.      To consider social, economic and cultural problem of all participants.
3.      To consider the  problems like radicalism and colonialism.
4.      To access the position of Afro-Asian states and their people in the world.
Summit Conferences of Non - Aligned Movement
First Summit Conference
It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) in 1961 in which 25 nations took part. The rules for obtaining membership of NAM were drafted.
Second Summit Conference
It was held at Cairo (Egypt) in 1964.
Third Summit Conference
It was held at Lusaka (Zambia) in 1970. 51 countries participated in this conference.
Fourth Summit Conference
It was held at Algiers (Algeria) in September 1973. In this conference the membership of Pakistan and China was opposed by India.
Fifth Summit Conference
It was held at Colombo (Srilanka) in August, 1976. 86 countries participated in this conference.
Opposition of radicalism and expansionism was declared. Arab cause was supported and USA was criticized for its annexation over Vietnam and Cuba.
Sixth Summit Conference
It was held at Havana (Cuba) on 3rd September, 1979 to 9th September, 1979. Pakistan attended this meeting for the first time as a member of NAM.
Seventh Summit Conference
It was held at Delhi (India) in March 1983. 101 countries participated in this conference. Arab cause, Palestine War, South African and Namibian struggle were discussed. USA was criticized for assisting Israel.
Eighth Summit Conference
It was held at Harare (Zimbabwe) on 1st September 1986. Afghanistan Problem, Iran Iraq War, Palestine and Namibian issue were discussed.
Ninth Summit Conference
It was held at Belgrade (Yugoslavia) on 4th September, 1989.
Pakistan – As the member of NAM
Pakistan joined NAM in 1979 although it participated actively in the 1st conference and attended the 5th conference as an observer. This was due to the fact that Pakistan was a member of SEATO and CENTO. Pakistan got rid of these organizations after the war with India (1965) and the debacle of East Pakistan (1971) when the sponsors of SEATO and CENTO did not came to help it.
Today, Pakistan participates actively in the programs of NAM and advocates affectively the problems relating to its member countries. Pakistan placed the case of foreign interference in Afghanistan in the Session of the 7th conference and was able to get most of the members confirm Pakistan stand on the problem and its equitable solution.
The NAM re-affirmed the inalienable right of all states to apply and develop their programs for peaceful uses of nuclear energy for economic and social development

Objective Resolution
Pakistan is the first nation in the world, whose creation was based on the religious motives. It was because of this reason that the popular and famous slogan of Pakistan ka Matlab Kiya? La Illaha Illallah.” Was the main basis of the demand of Pakistan. But at the very outset of its establishment, it had no Islamic constitution of its own, so according to the independence act of 1947, the government of India Act 1935, with certain amendments was adopted by Pakistan. However, a new constitution was to be framed for the country since the old act of 1935 did not contain everything required for an independent Islamic state.
First Constituent Assembly
In order to establish a society based on the Islamic principles, a constituent assembly was formed in 1947 with Quaid-e-Azam as its leader. The responsibility of making a constitution of Pakistan rested on Constituent Assembly.
However, with the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948, the responsibility of framing the constitution fell onto the shoulders of the first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan.
Objective Resolution
This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan. It contained those objectives on which the future constitution was to be based as stated by the founder of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam in February 1948, said:
“The constitution of Pakistan will be democratic and based on the fundamental laws of Islam… Islam and its ideology has taught us the lesson of democracy.”
Salient Features of Objective Resolution
The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows:
Sovereignty Belongs to Allah
The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan are a sacred trust.
1.    Federal System
Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan.
2.    Golden Principles of Islam
Principles of democracy, equality, freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed.
3.    Supreme Authority of the People
The sovereignty of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people.
4.    Life According to the Teachings of Islam
The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam.
5.    Protection of the Rights of Minorities
The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected.
6.    Equal Rights to Citizens
All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principle of equality.
7.    Development of Under Developed Areas
All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.
8.    Independence Judiciary
Judiciary will be independent.
Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan
While introducing the resolution in the constituent Assembly, Liaquat Ali Khan said:
“The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. When we use the word ‘Democracy’ in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society with equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of all men.”
Importance of the Objective Resolution
This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic society in Pakistan. Hence, it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan.
When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America, in the course of his speech at New Orleans, he said:
“We believe in God and his Supreme sovereignty because we believe that civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. But democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens inrrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us.”
Basic Principles of Committee
After passing the Objective Resolution, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan set up a “Basic Principle Committee” to spell out proposals for the Constitution in accordance with the guidelines contained in the Objective Resolution.
All the above mentioned principles were presented in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. It was accepted by all classes of people. It provided a guide line for the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956, 1962, 1973. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic.

Organization of Islamic Conference – O.I.C
The organization of Islamic Conference is the symbol of Islamic brother hood and fraternity. It is the biggest and the most active organization of Muslim countries. It was established in 1969 so that the scattered strength of Muslims may be united and unity among the Muslim countries may be strengthened.
Meeting of the Heads of the Islamic States
The Zionists set fire to the Holy Mosque “Al-Aqsa” on 21st August, 1969 which greatly infuriated the Muslims all over the World. Strikes were observed throughout the Muslim World. The Muslims felt that effective steps should be taken to protect the Muslims from the aggression of the non-Muslim forces. Thus the Arab Foreign Ministers in their conference assigned the responsibility to the Foreign Ministers of Saudi Arabia and Morocco of making arrangement to hold an Islamic Summit Conference. After meeting in Jeddah, a seven member committee was formed to take necessary steps for holding the Islamic Summit Conference.
Summit Conferences of the O.I.C
First Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
The first Islamic Summit Conference was held in Rabat (Morocco) from September 22nd to 25th in 1969.
24 heads of States participated in this conference.
1.      The incidents of burning of the Masjid Al-Aqsa was discussed.
2.      Middle East situation.
3.      Emphasis was laid on the need for maintaining close relations among Muslim countries.
Second Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in Lahore (Pakistan) from February 22nd to 24th in 1974.
The Present of the conference was Z.A. Bhutto.
40 delegations and a delegation of the Palestine Liberation Organization participated.
Following decisions were taken in the conference.
1.      Middles East problem especially Palestinians issue.
2.      It was demanded that Israeli troops should be withdrawn from occupied Arab Territory.
3.      A committee was set up to find ways and means to eliminate poverty, disease and ignorance.
4.      S.S.C also set up Muslim Itehad Fund and Islamic Development Bank.
Third Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
The third Islamic Summit Conference was held at Taif (Saudi Arabia ) in January 1981.
38 Muslim countries participated.
1.      The conference paid special attention to the soviet intervention in Afghanistan, Palestine problems, Jerusalem and Iran Iraq war.
2.      It was decided to create Islamic Center for Trade Exchange and to set up an Academy for Islamic Fiqah.
Fourth Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
The fourth Summit Conference was held at Casablanca (Morocco) in January, 1984.
45 Muslim countries participated.
1.      Various international problems like Iran Iraq war, Kashmir Issue, Lebanon Problem etc were discussed.
2.      Decisions were taken for the safeguard of the rights of the Palestine people.
3.      Decisions about Egypt’s re-entry in the O.I.C was also taken.
Fifth Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
The fifth conference was held in Kuwait in January 1987.
44 Islamic countries participated.
As usual a few resolutions were passed and more or less the same issues were dealt with.
Sixth Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
This conference was held in December 1991 at Dakar (Senegal).
45 countries participated in this conference.
Resolutions were passed on many problems like Kashmir, Afghanistan, Palestine etc and serious concern was also expressed on American threat of military action against Libya.
Seventh Islamic Summit Conference
Date and Place
This conference was held in Casablanca (Morocco) in December, 1994.
The president of Summit, King Hasan of Morocco, stressed the need for strengthening Islamic Solidarity and unity of the Islamic Ummah in an atmosphere of brother hood and concord.
The conference also expressed its determination:
“To the project the correct image of Islam reflecting the spirit of ‘Ijtehad’ based on the genral principles of Shariah.”
Benazir Bhutto said:
“Even worse, our enemies now seek to justify aggression against the Muslim peoples by portraying Islam as an intolerant doctrine of violence and terror.”
All the summit conferences clearly shows that the prime objective of O.I.C is to promote greater harmony and co-operation amongst the Muslim World and to protect their interest in International system. It also aimed at the advancement of economic, cultural, scientific, trade and educational interests of the Islamic countries and to create co-operation amongst them in these spheres. The O.I.C also stood for the fraternal feelings which had existed for centuries amongst the Muslims of the World

Pakistan Resolution
Pakistan resolution was the turning point in the history of Pakistan. It provides a way to the Muslims, leading to the destination of a complete independence.
Attitude of Hindus
Hindus clearly stated that they would not tolerate another community in India by saying:
“India belong to the Hindus and if Muslims wish to live in India, they should accept Hinduism.”
The Hindus tried to destroy Muslim identity by introducing Hindi as a medium of education.
Congress Oppresion
The Congress neglected the Muslim in every field and supported the Hindus. It did not even recognize Muslim as a considerable party in India. In his address Nehru stated that:
“There are only two parties in the country, the Congress and the British.”
According of Quaid-e-Azam:
“The sole aim and object of the Congress is to annihilate every other organization in the country.”
Partition Proposals
By 1937, the political conditions of Sub Continent compelled the Muslim political leaders to seriously consider the partition of India. The idea of Indian partition was not a new one, a number of partition proposals had been forwarded previously by many Muslim leaders like Syed Ahmed Shaheed, Mohd Abdul Qadir, Allama Iqbal, Syed Jamaluddin Afghani, Abdul Halim Sharar etc.
Proposal Given by Allama Iqbal
The most reasonable proposal was given by Allama Iqbal. The poet, philosopher, while delivering his presidential address at the annual session of the Muslim League at Allahabad in December, 1930 said:
“India is a continent of Human beings belonging to different languages, having different religion, therefore, I demand the formation of separate Muslim State for the Muslims of India.”
Chaudry Rehmat Ali’s Scheme
Chaudry Rehmat Ali proposed his scheme of partition of India. He declared:
“North of India is Muslim and we shall keep it Muslim. Not only that, we will make it a Muslim State…?
He coined the word ‘Pakistan’ in which ‘P’ stands for Punjab, ‘A’ stands for Afghanistan (N.W.F.P), ‘K’ for Kashmir, ‘S’ for Sindh and ‘tan’ stands for Baluchistan. The word ‘Pakistan’ itself means “The Land of Pure.”
The Pakistan Resolution
In 1940, the annual session of Muslim League was held at Lahore in Minto Park (Iqbal Park), under the chairmanship of Quaid-e-Azam and a resolution was passed on 23rd March, 1940. The resolution was moved by Bengal Chief Minister Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Chaudry Khaliq-uz-Zaman. It stated that:
“No constitution plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles, viz, that geographically contiguous units are democrated into regions which should be so constituted, with such territorial adjustment as may necessary, that the areas in which Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign… adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities for the protection of their religion, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights.”
Presidential Address of Quaid-e-Azam
The Quaid-e-Azam delivered a historic address at this moment highlighting the distinct national character of the Muslims of India. He said:
“Musalmans are not a minority as it is commonly known and understood. One has only got to look around even today, according to the British map of India, out of 11 provinces, 4 provinces where the Muslims dominate more or less are functioning not with standing the decision of the Congress High Command to non cooperate and prepare for civil disobedience. Muslamans are nation according to any difination of a nationand theymust have their homelands, their territory and their state. We wish to live in peace and harmony with our neighbours as a free and independent people. We wish our people to develop to the fullest our spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people.”
Muslim Acceptance and Hindus Rejection of the Resolution
The resolution was unanimously accepted by the Muslims who had assembled the meeting place in a large number. The Hindu readers and newspaper raised a hue and cry after the resolution. They refused it and referred to the partition as “Vivisection of Motherland.”
Gandhi said that:
 “Dividing India was like dividing a cow.”
Quaid-e-Azam warned the Hindus that:
“If the Hindus tried to get the whole of India they would loose the  whole, but if they gave one-third to the Muslims they would get two-thirds.”
Importance of Pakistan Resolution
The Pakistan Resolution is a land mark in the history of the Muslims of India.This famous resolution results in the creation of Pakistan. The acceptance of Pakistan Resolution strengthened the Two Nation Theory which was the basis of Muslim struggle for independence.
Pakistan Resolution was a demand for the protection and safeguard of the national identity of the Muslims. With the passage of Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims began to acquire new hope and confidence in their destiny. The resolution infused high spirits among the Muslims who were now determined to fight to the last minute for the accomplishment of Pakistan

Political Events From 1940 to 1947
The era from 1940 to 1947 is the era of rapid changes. Many important events in the history of the sub Continent took place. The demand of Pakistan is the most prominent among them. In the past, the demand of Pakistan was not raised clearly. It was due to Muslim achievements in this period that now we are living in a sovereign and independent state. The political events from Pakistan Resolution to the establishment of Pakistan are summarized under:
23rd March – Pakistan Resolution
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address:
“By all means Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, econmical, social and political lives independently.”
8th August – August Offer
It was proposed to enlarged governor general councils to include members from political parties. War Advisory Committee was also launched. Both league and Congress rejected the offer.
12th-15th April – Civil Disobedience Movement
28th session of League was held at Madras in which a resolution was adopted on Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Congress.
23rd March – Cripps Mission
Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitutions. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated cheque on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that if these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well.”
8th August – Quit India
Congress initiated it against British, it was “open rebellion” due to which many people were killed League raised a slogan of “Divide and Quit India.”
27th December – Action Committee
It was formed to prepare and organize Muslims of India for coming struggle for achievements of Pakistan.
9th September – Gandhi Jinnah Talks
Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.
Louis Feisher wrote:
“The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.”
25th June – Simla Conference
Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.
2nd December – General Elections
Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion:
“I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.”
24th March – Cabinet Mission
Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interium Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t co-operate amongst themselves.
8th – 9th April – Delhi Convention
Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League members at Delhi. At the convention every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.
16th August – Direct Action Day
League withdraw its acceptance of Cabinet Mission and Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India, except in Calcutta, where riots broke out.
3rd June – 3rd June Plan
Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.
18th July – Indian Independence Act
In July, the British parliament passed the Indian Independence act which was enforced promptly. The Muslims of the Sub Continent finally succeeded in carrying out an independent Islamic State for Muslims.
14th August – Transfer of Power
The transfer of power ceremony was held in Karachi. On August 15, Quaid-e-Azam was sworn in as Governor General of Pakistan and Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed his Prime Minister.
“That was the culmination of a long struggle which the Muslims of the South Asian Sub Continent had weged for a separate homeland in the name of Islam.”

Regional Languages of Pakistan
Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than twenty-four languages and dialects are spoken by the people of Pakistan, But mainly include five regional languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Baluchi, Brahvi and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature, poetry, folksongs, spiritual sayings of their respective saints and contribute greatly to the culture of Pakistan.
The regional languages though distinct from one another in their forms, dialects and expressions of thoughts, have several common factors in them. They cultivate in them love, respect and a firm adherence to the Pakistan Ideology. The regional languages of Pakistan are:
Punjabi is the language of the province ‘Punjab’. It has its links with the Aryan language Prakrit. However as time rolled on the vocabulary of Punjabi language became a mixture of Persian, Arabic and Turkish words. It has different dialects in different parts of Punjabi like ‘Saraiki’ and ‘Potohari’ but the basic language remains the same.
Punjabi is rich in mystical and romantic poetry. The highly imaginative and artistic exquisite literature, mostly in verse has two forms one is “Lyric Poetry” which includes Bait, Kafi, Si-harfi, Bara Mah and Satwara the other one is “Narrative Poetry”  which is composed of various rhythms and meters. Examples are Qissa Noor Namah, Gulzar, Jang Nama and Vaar.
Famous Punjabi Poets
Some of the famous poets of Punjabi language are:
·        Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh
·        Shaikh Ibrahim Farid Shani
·        Madholal Hussein
·        Sultan Bahu
·        Bullay Shah
·        Ali Haider
·        Waris Shah
Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the people of Moen-jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language.
The origin of this language is not exactly known. However, travelers like Al Beruni have told us about the original script of the language. ‘Chach Nama’ being an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century, as it is today. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the Sub Continent Sindhi changed its form and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish.
Famous Sindhi Poets
Some of famous Sindhi Poets are:
·        Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
·        Sachal Sarmast
·        Makhdoom Noor
·        Shah Inayat
·        Bedil
·        Sabit Ali Shah
·        Kazi Kazah
Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi
Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu. Organizations like ‘Sindhi Literary Board’ and ‘Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula’ etc were set up. Several newspaper being published in Sindhi, such as Ibrat, Naw-i-Sind  and “Khadim-I-Watan  besides a number of Weeklies.
Baluchi is the regional language of Baluchistan. It is the least developed of all the regional languages. It was spread by Baluchi tribal migrated from Iran.
The history of Baluchi literature may be divided into four periods:
1.      Early Medieval Period – 1430 to 1600
2.      Later Medieval Period -  1600 to 1850
3.      Modern Period – 1850 to 1930
4.      Contemporary Period – 1930 up to date
Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Baluchi up till 1940. After partition, however Baluchi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and by the establishment of T.V stations. At present, Baluchi literature is on the road to development.
Types of Baluchi
There are two types of Baluchi namely:
1.      Sulemani
2.      Makrani
Famous Poets of Baluchi
Some of the most literary figures are:
·        Azad Jamaldini
·        Ulfat Naseem
·        Abdul Qadir Shahwani
·        Malik Mohammed Ramzan
·        Mir Aaqil Maingal
Well known poets of Baluchi language are:
·        Jam Darag
·        Shah Murid
·        Shahdad
Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian, Arabic, Greek and Pehlevi words.
Steps Taken to Develop Pushto
Although Pushto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one. After independence education spread rapidly and Pushto literature received a great boost. The Pushto Academy Peshawar and other literary societies and educational institutions such as Islamia College (Peshawar) helped the growth of Pushto literature.
Famous Pushto Poets
Some of the well know poets of Pushto language are:
·        Amir Karoro
·        Khushal Khan Khatak
·        Rehman Baba
·        Sher Shah Soori
·        Saif ullah
·        Kazim Kazim
Brahvi is the next spoken language of Baluchistan. In fact it is said to be spoken by a greater number of people than Baluchi. The Brahvi language is said to be a member of Dravidian family of languages. It has borrowed heavily from Sindhi, Persian, Arabic and English but remains in an unexplained isolation among the Indo-Iran dialects.
Brahvi literature has a vast treasure of folklores. It’s script has borrowed much from Pushto script. Malik Dad was a great poet and learned person of Brahvi language.
Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabitting the occupied Kashmire and Azad Kashmir. This language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in Muslim families of the valley. It contains many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words, and is written in the Persian Script.
Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan, had its early literature flowered in the form of poetry, which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads.
Kashmiri Literary Figures
Famous authors of Kashmiri language are:
·        Sh. Nooruddin
·        Khatoon Lillah Anifa
·        Baba Nasiruddin
·        Ghani
The regional languages of Pakistan- Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi, Brahvi and Baluchi are the most modern Pakistani languages. They have several common features and their literature bears the same eternal message for mankind. Government has been doing its best to develop the regional languages.

Role of Muslim League in theCreation of Pakistan
Anti partition agitation staged by Hindus made it clear to the Muslims that they must have a separate political organization. In December, 1906 Muslim Leaders from all over the Sub Continent assembled in Dacca to attend the All India Mohammadan to establish a central political organization for Muslims called the “All India Muslim League.” The Muslim League was established with the primary aim of protecting the political rights of Indian Muslims and presenting their demands and problems before the British Government.
Foundation of Muslim League
The success of Simla Deputation made it imperative for the Muslims of the Sub Continent to have their own political organization. In 1906, the Muslims of India founded a political party of their own known as “All India Muslim league.”
Causes of Muslim League’s Foundation
The partition of Bengal by the British Government in 1905 greatly embittered the relations between Hindus and Muslims. The partition ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslim but the Hindus reacted towards the partitions of Bengal in a hostile and violent manner. This made it clear that the Hindus were not willing to give Muslims their due share. This violent protest of the Hindus convinced the educated Muslims that they could be redeemed only if they created their own political force and their own leadership.
Aims of Muslim League
The aims of Muslim League are given below:
1.      To safe guard and protect Muslim interests and to convey their demands to British Government.
2.      To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslim for the British Government.
3.      To promote brotherhood between the different nations of India.
Role of Muslim League
The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:
1.    Minto – Morley Reform Act – 1909
The  Muslims under the able leadership of the Muslim league now began to press for the separate electorate for the Muslims. The authorities accepted their demand in an Act, called “The Minto – Morley Reform Act”, in 1909.
2.    Lucknow Pack – 1916
In November 1916, two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew an agreement draft of political reform for India called “Lucknow Pact.” Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.
3.    Simon Commission
In 1927, Simon Commision was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences. It was rejected because there was no Indian member on the commission.
4.    Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929
The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the Nehru – report. In order to protect the Muslim’s point of view on the political issues of South Asia, he prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points, popularly known as “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”
5.    Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address – 1930
In 1930, in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad, Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South-Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.
6.    Day of Deliverance
On 22nd December, Muslim League observed “Deliverance Day” to thank God for resignation of Congress Ministers.
7.    Pakistan Resolution - 1940
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address:
“By all means Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, econmical, social and political lives independently.”
8.    Cripps Mission - 1942
Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitutions. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated cheque on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that:
“If these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well.”
9.    Gandhi Jinnah Talks - 1944
Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.
Louis Feisher wrote:
“The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.”
10.           Simla Conference - 1945
Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.
11.           General Elections – 1945 -1946
Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslims and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion:
“I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.”
12.           Cabinet Mission - 1946
Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interium Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t co-operate amongst themselves.
13.           Delhi Convention - 1946
Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League members at Delhi. At the convention every member took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.
14.           3rd June Plan - 1947
Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.
Muslim League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947. In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan. If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed.

Role of Urdu in National Integration
Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring closer each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people.
Pakistan has several regional languages, chief of them being Pushto, Punjabi, Sindhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri.
Urdu – National Language of Pakistan
After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear cut words that the national language of Pakistan would be Urdu. He said:
“Let me make it clear that the national language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language . Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly together.”
Evolution of Urdu
Urdu evolved over a period of centuried by cultural contacts between local people of north of Sub Continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The base of this language is Prakrit, an Aryan language. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian. Urdu is a word of Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp.
Qualities of Urdu
1.    Great Power of Assimilation
The splendour of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base. The vitality of Urdu lies in its ability to adopt words from other languages in such a way as if they originally belonged to it. The chief reason for its country wide popularity was its power of Assimilation. According to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan:
“…Still now Urdu has great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its beauty.”
2.    Source of National Indentity
National language is the identity of a nation. When we are abroad we are identified as Pakistani because of our national language. That is why, every nation gives out respect and importance to national language.
Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry
The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The poets and writers have contributed their most in its development. Maulana Shibli Nomani, Maulana Hali, Deputy Nazir Ahmed, Mirza Ghalib, Amir Khusro and many others adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of Sub Continent. According to Abdul Haque:
“It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of only one century.”
Importance of Urdu in National life
Certain points which expresses the importance of Urdu in national life are given below:
1.    Means of Brotherhood and Unity
People of Pakistan are one nation, therefore their thinking, aims and objectives are common. Their progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. An important factor for achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu.
2.    Source of Expression
Urdu has become a source of expression, feeling, thoughts, and aspiration. People of two different areas can easily understood each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu.
3.    Means of Communicaton and Co-ordination
Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the four provinces of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking different languages, they are joined together by one national language which is the heritage of all.
4.    Medium of Instruction
Urdu language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational institutions of Pakistan. History, Islamic Studies, political Science and other subjects are taught upto M.A level in Urdu. Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delievered in Urdu throughout Pakistan.
Urdu – An Imporant Part of Our Cultural Heritage
Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British, it had been adopted by the Muslims and the Hindus alike. It would not be wrong to say if it is said that:
“Urdu is a part of our cultural Heritage.”
Being the national language of the country, it is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. The officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a dictionary containing Urdu terms for the office work. The Urdu Development Board and “Anjuman-e-Taraqi-e-Urdu” are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its place in society within short period of time.

Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
Definition of Culture
Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects use d. Culture consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, codes, institution, tools, techniques, works of arts, ceremonies and so on. According to Allama Iqbal:
“Culture encompasses all the mental, spiritual and physical activities of a nation. It includes the basic beliefs and faith, values and literature, art and architecture, music and mode of dress, manners and customs prevalent in a given society.”
Pakistani Culture is a Islamic Culture
Pakistan is an ideological Islamic State. Its very existence is due to Islam, so the Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life. All other ingredients of culture are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.
Salient Features of Pakistani Culture
The main characteristics of Pakistani culture are as follows:
1.    Religious Uniformity
Pakistan came into existence to provide its people a system of life based on Islam. The people, in spite of some differences of languages, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion of Islam. This is the religion, which is practiced by all people of Pakistan.
2.    Language
A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto and Baluchi. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan. Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan.
3.    Literature and Poetry
Literature is an important aspect of our cultural life. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and trend in their poetry. They gave the message of love and brotherhood. Similarity of thought amongst poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life.
4.    Dress and Diet
Dress is an important manifestation of culture. The regional dresses of Pakistan under go changes in the light of local traditions, economic conditions, way of living and wealth in the region. But in all Provinces people generally wear Shalwar Kameez.
Our eating habits, foods and social etiquette are strictly in conformity with Islamic principles.
5.    Mixed Culture
Pakistani culture is a mixed culture although majority of people are Muslims by birth and faith. But there is great influence of Hindu and British culture on the present Pakistani society.
6.    Male Dominated Society
In Pakistani culture, the male member of the family enjoys the key position. Family is headed by a male member and in most cases, he is the sole source of income for other members of the family.
7.    Arts and Architecture
The iconoclasm of Islam has given a characteristic form and pattern in the use of elegant designs, based on geometric figures and floral forms borrowed from nature. The Shah Jahan Masjid, Shalimar Garden, Badshahi Masjid, Shahi Qila and many such graceful buildings are a living proof of the excellent Mughal architecture.
8.    Handicrafts
Embroidery, leather works, glazed pottery, wood work, carpet making, metal crafts, ivory are the essential parts of our culture. Pakistani craftsmen are considered as the best in their craftsmanship. They are known for the high quality works which is very popular in foreign countries.
9.    Recreational Activities – Sports
The recreational activities all over the Pakistan are common. The games like wrestling, hockey, cricket, football, squash Kabaddi etc are popular in every part of our country. These games reflect our cultural identity.
10.           Education
Education contributes a great deal in developing national character. Educational system plays a vital role in the formation of culture, Unity and solidarity of a nation. It is, therefore, important that the entire syllabi right from the lower to higher level should be placed in accordance with the ideology of Pakistan.
11.           Religious Festivals
Festivals play an important part of our culture. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are our two main religious festivals. They are celebrated with great happiness throughout the country.
12.           Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets
Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi Poets occupy an honoured place in our cultural aspect of life. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz, Data Ganj Baksh, Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the Sub Continent.
Culture which includes religion, literature art, architecture, dresses, music, manners and customs has its roots in the Islamic culture. Islam has described the rights and duties of every individual. Even in drinking, eating and dressing, we have to observe certain rules prescribed by Islam. So it may be said that Pakistani culture represents the true picture of Islamic culture.

Two Nation Theory
Meaning of Two Nation Theory
The Two Nation theory in its simplest way, means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.
The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan
The Two nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual culture s and civilization. Al - Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind” as:
“The Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course.”
There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.
1.    Religious Differences
The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tawheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.
Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life.
2.    Hindu Nationalism
A number of Hindu nationalist movements, which emerged from time to time in the Indian history, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities.
The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.
3.    Cultural Differences
Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burred them. Hindus considered the ‘Mother cow’ as a sacred animal and worshipped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed ‘Sati’ while Muslims abhorred this tradition. The Hindus and Muslims do not intermarry nor they inter-dine.
4.    Social differences
The  two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin.
5.    Economic Differences
After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to detriment the Muslim condition. They were thrown out of Government services and the their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.
6.    Educational Differences
The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
7.    Political Differences
The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory.
(i) Hindi Urdu Controversy
In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.
(ii) Congress Attitude
The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.
(iii) Partition of Bengal
In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.
8.    Language
The Muslim and Hindus wrote  and spoke two different languages. The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this small difference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan – The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of two nation theory, used the word ‘two nation’ for Hindus and Muslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for the Muslims.
The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:
“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the  same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their differences with the Hindus with regard to religions, social and language, rational and international identity and for this purpose he diverted attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two entities.”
After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible for Hindus and Muslims to progress as a single nation. He said:
“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite  distinct from each other.”
Two Nation Theory in the View of Allama Iqbal
Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the  basis of two nation theory. He firmly believed in the  separate identity of the Muslims as a nation and suggested that there would be no possibility of peace in the country unless and until they were recognized as a nation. In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, he said:
“India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions… I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam.”
Quaid-e-Azam’s Statement on Two Nation Theory
The most clear and emphatic exposition is found in Jinnah’s statement and speeches. He expounded the two nation theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth. He declared:
“Muslims are not a minority, they are one nation by every definition of the  word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”
Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was an idle dream. They are a totally different nation. They have an unbridgeable gulf between them and they stand miles apart in regards to their ideals, culture and religion.
In 1973, he said:
Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitants one nation. This is Sub Continent which consist of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nations.”
The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. They also came to realize the above mentioned differences between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus.
Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e two nation theory is the  basis of the  creation of Pakistan because without this as a base, Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan.

Short Questions and Answers
1.             Who was the first president of Islamic Republic of Pakistan?
Ans.        The first president of the Islamic Republic of Pkistan was Iskandar Mirza.
2.             Of which organization is UNICEF the abbreviated forms?
Ans.        UNICEF is one of the specialized agenceis of United nations an dis the abbreviated form of "United Nations International Children Emergency Fund."
3.             Which institution was inaugurated by the Quaid-e-Azam in July 1948?
Ans.        The State Bank of Pakistan was inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam in July, 1948.
4.             Name the rivers on which the Mangla Dam and the Tarbela Dam are built.
Ans.        Tarbela Dam is built on River Indus and Mangla Dam is built on River Jhelum.
5.             Name two famous poets of Pushto language.
Ans.        The famous and popular poets of Pushto language are:
(i)            Kazim Khan Shaida
(ii)           Rehman Baba
6.             Who are the famous poets of Sindhi languaeg?
Ans.        The famous and popular poets of Pushto language are:
(i)            Syed Abdul Karim Muhammad Hashim.
(ii)           Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
(iii)         Sachal Sarmast
(iv)          Pir Muhammad
(v)           Makhdoom Noah
(vi)          Makhdoom Ahmed Bhatti
7.             Who are the famous poets of Punjabi Language?
Ans.        The names of famous poets of Punjabi language are given below:
(i)            Sultan Bahu
(ii)           Bullah Shah
(iii)         Shah Hussain
(iv)          Waris Shah
(v)           Madho Lal Hussain
(vi)          Ghulam Farid
8.             Was the constitution of 1962 of presidential or parliamentary type?
Ans.        The constitution of 1962 introduced the presidential form of Government.
9.             Name the natural regions of Pakistan.
Ans.        Pakistan is divided into six natural regions.
(i)            Northern Mountain Range
(ii)           Mountains of Western Frontier
(iii)         Plateau of Potowar and Salt Range
(iv)          The Plateau of Baluchistan
(v)           Upper Indus Plain             
(vi)          Lower Indus Plain
10.          Write the objectives of U.N.O.
Ans.        The main aims and objectives of United Nations (UNO) are:
                (i)            The first and foremost aim of U.N.O. is to prevent war and maintain peace in the world through collective efforts.
                (ii)           To create good will among the nation of the world through economic, social, political dn humanitarism means.
                (iii)         To eraclicate the evils of caste, colour and creed by means of education.
                (iv)          Cultivation of friendly relations amont the people on the basis of equality and the principle of self-determination.
                (v)           Preservation of human rights and fundamental freedom all over the world.
11.          Of which organization is R.C.D. the abbreviated from? What is its new name?
Ans.        R.C.D. is the abbreviated form of "Regional Cooperation for Development." The new name is E.C.O. (Economic Cooperation Organization)
12.          Describe briefly the causes that led to the creation of All India Muslim League?
Ans.        Following are the causes of the formation of All India Muslim League:
                (i)            Congress - A Hindu Organisation: Hume laid the foundation of Indian National Congress in 1885. But Congress by its policy and propaganda proved itself a Hindu Organisation.
                (ii)           UnHappy Events of Partition of Bengal: Hindu's attitude towards Muslim interest and the partition of Bengal had exposed Hindu feelings beyond any doubt.
                (iii)         Safeguard for Urdu: Urdu-Hindu controversy was one of the causes of the creation of Muslim League.
                (iv)          Propaganda Agains Islam: Some Hindu leaders had raised the slogan "India is for Hindus Only." They starteed propaganda against Islam and Muslims.
13.          When, where and with whom did the members of the Simla Delegation go to meet?
Ans.        On 1st October 1906, a Muslim deputation consisting of 35 representative met the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla and presented some demands of Muslims. The Viceroy gave a patient hearing to the demands of the Muslims presented by the Simla Delegation and he promised to give athetic consideration to the demands of Muslims and assured them that the interests of the Muslims would be safeguarded.
14.          When and why was the Khilafat Movement started? Who were the leaders of the Movement?
Ans.        After the First World War, the fate of Ottoman Turkish Empire (Khilafat) was sealed. The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the Caliphs of the Muslim World. The general impression among the Muslims was that the Western Powers were waging a war against Islam to rob it of all its powers. Muslims of South India took up courage and started "Khilafat Movement in 1919. It's aim was to:
(i)            To save Khilafat
(ii)           To protect Holy Cities from non-Muslim control
The leaders of Khilafat Movement were:
(i)            Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar
(ii)           Maulana Shaukat Ali
(iii)         Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
15.          What do you know about the regional languages of Pakistan?
Ans.        Besides the national language Urdu, certain regional languages are spoken in Pakistan. These languages are spoken in a limited area, therefore, their status is of regional of provincial language. There are four porvinces in Pakistan. Each province has its own language:
(i)            Punjab   Punjabi
(ii)           Sindh                     Sindhi
(iii)         N.W.F.P                Pushto
(iv)          Baluchistan          Baluchi
16.          When were the general elections for the central legislature Assembly held in India and how many seats were captured by All India Muslim League?
Ans.        The general elections for the central legislature Assembly were held in India in December. 1945. The Muslim League won 86.6% of the total Muslim seats. Out of total 102 seats in the centreal Assembly, the Muslim League won 30 seats.
17.          Write names of the member countries of the SAARC organization.
Ans.        The following are the member countries of SAARC:
(i)            India
(ii)           Pakistan               
(iii)         Bangladesh
(iv)          Sri Lanka
(v)           Nepal
(vi)          Bhutan
(vii)        Maldives
18.          When and which treaty was signed between India and Pakistan with respect to canal water dispute?
Ans.        The water dispute had its origin in the partition of Punjab. It came to light on April 1, 1948, when India cut off the flow of canal water to West Punjab in Pakistan, causing a great threat of famine and loss of crops in West Punjab.
                With the Intervention of World Bank, on September 19, 1960, an agreement was concluded between the countries which is known as "Indus Basin Treaty". The treaty was singed by President Ayub Khan from Pakistan side and by Pandit Jauhar Lal Nehru from India in 1961. According to this agreement the Chenab, Jhelum and the Indus rivers were allocated to Pakistan adn three Eastern rivers Sutluj, Bias and Ravi were given to India.
19.          When and where as the first session of the All India Muslim League held?
Ans.        The first session of the All India Muslim League was held at Karachi on 29th and 30th December, 1907.
20.          When and who dissolved the first constituent Assembly of Pakistan.
Ans.        The first constiuent Assembly of Pakistan was dismissed by then the Governor General Ghulam Muhammad on October 24th, 1954.
21.          When and where was Allama Iqbal born?
Ans.        Allama Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot.
22.          Name any two cash crops of Pakistan?
Ans.        Cash crops supply raw material to industires. Foreign exhange is also earned through export of these crops. The cash-crops of Pakistan are:
(i)            Cotton
(ii)           Sugar-Cane
23.          How many administrative divisions are there in Sindh?
Ans.        There are four administrative divisons in Sindh.
24.          Name the main industries of Pakistan.
Ans.        The main industries of Pakistan are:
(i)            Textile Industries
(ii)           Cement Industries
(iii)         Paper Industries
(iv)          Sugar Industries
(v)           Steel Industries
(vi)          Fertilizer's Factories
25.          On what date was the Day of Deliverance observed as announced by the Quaid-e-Azam?
Ans.        When the congress ministrers, resigned in October, 1939, the Quaid-e-Azam appealed to the Muslims of India to observe a "Deliverance Day" on December 22, 1939 and expressed their relief at the termination of Congress rule which had been too hostile during the last two years. He also appealed that the Day should be observed peacefully. The Deliverance Day was observed peacefully throughout the country.
26.          When was the Zakat system introduced in Pakistan?
Ans.        The Zakat System was introduced in the country through the Zakat and Ushr Ordinance on June 20, 1980. According to this ordinance, Zakat fund would be established to collect these sorts of gifts and it was compulsory for every Sahib-e-Nisab Muslim whether male of female to pay Zakat by deducting it from his or her account in the bank.
27.          Name the four casts of Hindu Society.
Ans.        The Hindu society was divided into the following four casts:
(i)            Brahman
(ii)           Khatri
(iii)         Vaish
(iv)          Shooder
28.          Which caste is respected the most in the Hindu society?
Ans.        The Brahmans are considered the most superior in the Hindu society.
29.          What are the works given to the Khartis?
Ans.        The occupation of Khatris was to fight and defend the country.
30.          What is the occupation of Vaish?
Ans.        The people of the Vaish caste are farmers, traders, industrialists and artisans.
31.          What was the occupation of Shooder?
Ans.        The people of Shooder caste were considered the lowest of other castes. They had to serve the other castes, i.e. they were slaved.
32.          How did Urdu language came into being?
Ans.        The Mughal army consisted of people belonging to different communities of India and speaking different langauges. By intermingling of these people, a new language by the nameof Urdu came into existance.
33.          Name the Sufis who worked for the spread of Islam in South Asia.
Ans.        The sufis and saints who worked for the spreading of Islam in South Asia are:
(i)            Hazrat Data Ganj Baksh
(ii)           Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti
(iii)         Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani
(iv)          Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalander
(v)           Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria
34.          What do you mean by "Ideology of Pakistan."
Ans.        Pakistan came into existence of the basis of one ideology and this ideology refers that Islam is the religion of all the Muslims and this Islamic ideology is the Idology of Pakistan.
35.          Which province did not have any constitution during the British rule?
Ans.        The British had made North West Frontier Province as "Non-Constitutional Land."
36.          When did partition of Bengal take place and who benefited from it? When and hod did the annulment of partition took place?
Ans.        The partitionof Bengal took place in 1905 and this was the first right step taken by the British towards the interests of Muslims, but the narrow-minded Hindus could not bear this and due to their opposition the annulment of partition took place in 1911.
37.          Why did the Muslims not accept the Nehru Report?
Ans.        In the Nehru Report, the Hindus did no respect the rights and interesets of Muslims and not fulfilled the promises made by them. Therefore, the Muslims did not accept the Nehru Report.
38.          Why did Quaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points?
Ans.        Quaid-e-Azam presented his fourteen points in reply to the Nehru Report.
39.          Why did the round table conference failed?
Ans.        The Round Table Conference failed due to the narrow-mindedness and negative attitute of the Hindus.
40.          Write down the points of Indian Independence Act of 1947.
Ans.        The important points of Indian Independence Act are:
                (i)            The legislative supremacy of the two Dominions.
                (ii)           The legislatures of the two Dominions were given full powers to make laws having extra-territorial jurisdication.
                (iii)         The Brigish Government was to have no control over the affairs of the Dominions, provinces or any part of the Dominions after 15th August, 1947.
41.          What were the important points of 3rd June Plan?
Ans.        The important points of 3rd June Plan are as follows:
                (i)            India was to be divided into Hindustan and Pakistan.
                (ii)           Pakistan was to comprise the Muslim majority areas with a right to secede from the rest of India.
                (iii)         The Muslims majority areas would be demarcated by a Joint Boundary Commission.
                (iv)          Bengal would be partitioned into Muslim and Hindu majority areas.
42.          Which party formed the Government of Britain when the sub-continent was partitioned?
Ans.        The Labour Party ruled the Government of Britain when India was partitioned.
43.          Write the name of some Muslim Leaders who worked during the Pakistan Movements.
Ans.        (i)            Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
                (ii)           Nawab Salim Ullah
                (iii)         Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk
                (iv)          Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk
                (v)           Sir Agha Khan
                (vi)          Allama Iqbal
                (vii)        Quaid-e-Azam
44.          During the World War II, what promise did the British Government made towards the people of sub-continent?
Ans.        The British Government promised the people of sub-continent that India will be partitioned after the end of the Second World War.
45.          How many resolutions did the U.N. passed regarding Kashmir Problem?
Ans.        The Security Council of United Nations passed two resolutions on 17th August, 1948 and 5th January, 1949.
46.          What did Quaid-e-Azam said about Radcliff Commission?
Ans.        The Quaid-e-Azam remarked about Radcliff Commisssion or Radcliff Award:
"The award was a parting kick of the British Government."
47.          What was the percentage of Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir according to the census of 1941?
Ans.        According to the census of 1941, the Muslim population in Kashmir was 96% and in Jammu, it was 70%
48.          What do you known about Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula?
Ans.        In the period of third Prime Minister, Mr. Muhammad Ali Bogra, great efforts were made for the preparation of the constitution. In the light of the recommendations of the committee he was able to prepare a draft bill of the constitution which is known as "Muhammad Ali Bogra's Formula." In this formula, it was suggested to give equal representation to East and West Pakistan.
49.          When was the Objective Resolution passed?
Ans.        The Objective Resolution was passed on 12th March, 1949 in the Constituent Assembly.
50.          Which event took place in the history of constitution making of Pakistan 1955?
Ans.        It was hoped that after Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula, a constitution would be made in the country but in 1954, the Governor General dismissed the Constituent Assembly and in 1955, a new constituent Assembly was elected which started the work of constitution making.
51.          How long did the 1956 constitution last?
Ans.        The constitution of 1956 lasted for only two and a half years. On 7th October, 1958, the army took over the government.
52.          According to the constitution of 1962, name the council that was established to point out the non-Islamic things.
Ans.        The council which was established to point out the non-Islamic things is known as "Islamic Ideology Council."
53.          How long did the constitution of 1962 last?
Ans.        This constitution lasted for 7 years. On 25th March, 1969, Ayub Khan resigned and gave teh power to the army. General Yahya Khan dismissed the 1962 constitution and enforceed Martial Law in the country.
54.          When was the legal frame work Order issued?
Ans.        The legal frame work order was issued on March 30th, 1970. The said or4der contained the fundamental principles of the constitution to be framed by the elected assembly as well as the number of seats in National and Provincial Assembly for the General Elections to be held.
55.          When were the Shariat Courts formed and where is its head office?
Ans.        Shariat Courts were established in 1979 and its head office is at Islamabad.
56.          When was the interest-free banking system introduced in the country?
Ans.        On 1st January, 1981, an interest-free banking system was introduced in the country. According to this system, the account holder was made a partner with the bak in its profit or loss by shring it according to his investment in the bank.
57.          Under what circumstances did General Zia-ul-Haq took control of power on 5th July 1977.
Ans.        The elections held in the country were not fair. The people started the Nizam-e-Mustafa Movement. The government held discussion but no results were obtained. As a result, the army on 5th July 1977 took control of the power.
58.          Give the location of Pakistan.
Ans.        Pakistan is geographically located between 23.45 to 36.45 North Latitude and about 61 to 75.5 East longitude in South Asia. The country is surrounded by Bharat in East, Afghanistan in the North West, Iran in the West and the Arabian Sea in the South.
59.          How much is the area of Pakistan.
Ans.        The total area of Pakistan is 796096 square kilometers.
60.          What does the word "Doab" mean?
Ans.        The land or space between two rivers is known as "Doab."
61.          Give a brief account of the seasons in Pakistan.
Ans.        There are four seasons in Pakistan.
                (i)            Summer - From May till September
                (ii)           Winter - From November till February
                (iii)         Spring - The season of March and April
                (iv)          Autumn - Spetember and October
62.          Write down the names of some important departments of Governmetn of Pakistan.
Ans.        The important departments of Government of Pakistan are as follows:
                (i)            Foreign Office
                (ii)           Defence Department
                (iii)         Interior Ministry
                (iv)          Finance Department
                (v)           Education Department
                (vi)          Health Department
                (vii)        Communication Department
63.          How does the Government control the affairs of F.A.T.A. (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) ?
Ans.        The Federa Government through its appointed agent keeps in touch with the leaders of tribal areas and controls the system of these areas. The shol are comes under the control of Jirga. This Jirga is a council comprising of the religious and experienced people of these tribes.
64.          What do you mean by culture?
Ans.        Culture is the history of the society and reflects its social past. Culture means behaviour peculiar to its human beings. Culture consists of languages, literature, ideas, beliefs, customs, habits, codes, dress, diet, art, moral, institution, laws, etc.
65.          From which areas did civilized life begin?
Ans.        Human civilization started from those areas where water, air and other geographicsl conditions were in much condition for life. Therefore, fertile valley of rivers include Dajla Dafrat (Iraq), Valley of Nite (Egypt) and Indus Valley (Pakistan). The evolution of population started from these areas and civilised life began.
66.          The land of Pakistan is famous of which civilizations?
Ans.        The land of Pakistan is proud to have the birth fo the historical civilization of the valley of Indus. This civilization was at its peak about four or five thousand years ago.
67.          Which land do you mean by Indus Valley?
Ans.        Indus Valley means those areas which are situated near the River Indus and it's neighbouring Rivers. It's present name is Pakistan.
68.          What do you mean by Gandhara Art?
Ans.        The areas of Pubjab and N.W.F.P. which at present situated near Rawalpindi and Peshawar were in the old days given the name of Gandhara Civilization. About two and half thousand years ago, this civilization was at its peak whose art and culture especially art of painting and stone carving are famous.
69.          Write down the names of certain important buildings of Muslim Era.
Ans.        (i)            The Fort of Agra
                (ii)           Taj Mahal, Agra
                (iii)         Shahi Qila, Dehli
                (iv)          The Tomb of Jehangir, Lahore
                (v)           Badshahi Mosjid, Lahore
                (vi)          Masjid Wazir Khan, Lahore
                (vii)        Jamai Masjid, Thatta
70.          What do you mean by imperialist system?
Ans.        The Britishers brought an imperialist system. The imperialist system means that local cultural and social agencies should be so bound by a political structure that they loose ther identification.
71.          When did the Muslims invade South Asia?
Ans.        Muslims invaded South Asia in 712 A.D. when Muhammad Bin Qasim defeated the army of Raja Dahir and established an Islamic Welfare State.
72.          Which artists did Humayun brought back from Iran?
Ans.        Humayan brought back two artist Mir Syed Ali Tabrezi and Khawaja Abdul Samad from Iran.
73.          Which type of painting flourished during the era of Jehangir?
Ans.        Jehangir had great interest in the art of painting. He claimed that he can identify a painter by seeing his paintings. In this era, this art was at its peak. Beautiful pictures of flowers. plants, animals, birds and natural scenes were made. The pictures of war fighting are magnificient examples of realistic art.
74.          Who was the first musician of the Muslim era?
Ans.        Amir Khusro was the first musician of the Muslim era. He invented many rags in music.
75.          What did the extremist Hindu Movements wanted to do against the Muslims?
Ans.        Hindu extremist Movement such as Shoodhi, Shungthan and Arya Samaj wanted to convert Muslims to Hundus and wanted diminish the separate identity and culture of the Muslims so that the Muslims could leave India.
76.          What message did the Allama Iqbal gave to the Muslims of the sub-continent?
Ans.        Allama Iqbal gave the message to the Muslims of India that they should develop the feeling of Islamic brotherhood and Jihad so that they could become independent.
77.          What did Quaid-e-Azam said about the objective for the creation for Pakistan?
Ans.        Quaid-e-Azam described the main objective of the creation of Pakistan in the following words:
" We have not demanded Pakistan only to get a piece of land, but our aim was to get a laboratory where we could practise the principles of Islam."
78.          Pakistani culture is a mixed culture. Comment.
Ans.        Pakistani culture is a mixed culture. There is still some impact of foreign traditions in our society. We have adopted Western Music and their style of living. Although majority of the people are Muslims, there is a mixed culture of Hindus, Britishers and Muslims.
79.          The basis of Pakistani culture is on Islam. Comment.
Ans.        Pakistan was established so that the Muslims could lead their lives according to the teachings and principles of Islam. Pakistani culture is predominantly an Islamic culture. Pakistan inspite of the differences of religion, language and customs commonly follow the religion of Islam.
80.          What are the Pakistani arts?
Ans.        Pakistani are include the following:
                (i)            Stone Carving
                (ii)           Carpet Making
                (iii)         Embriodery
81.          How many languages are spoken in Pakistan?
Ans.        In Pakistan, about 30 small and big languages are spoken. These include Urdu, Sindhi, Pushto, Punjabi, Baluchi, Kashmiri and Brahvi.
82.          What were the different names of Urdu in its different periods?
Ans.        In the beginning Urdu was given the name Hindavi, Hindi and Hindustani. Later on, it was given the name Urdu-e-Moalla and Rekhta. And now it is given the name Urdu.
83.          When did Pushto language begin?
Ans.        Pushto is the language of N.W.F.P. The people speaking these languages are called Pukhtoon or Pushtoon. This language started about 5000 years in Afghanistan. Bakhtar or Bakht. Due to this it was given the name Bakhto which later became Pukhto or Pushto.
84.          Whom began Sindhi language in Arabic script?
Ans.        Abul-Hasan Sindhi began Sindhi Language in Arabic script.
85.          Which things are distinct in Punjabi literature?
Ans.        Folk tales are very popular in Punjabi literature. The poets gave thses tales into poetic forms. These tales include romances like Hir Ranjha, Sasshi Panhu and Sohni Mahiwal.
86.          Write down the names of famous Balochi tales?
Ans.        The famous tales of Balochi language are:
                (i)            Chakar Khan
                (ii)           Hamal Rando - Hanaz
                (iii)         Berang-o-Grahan
                (iv)          Nazshah Hured Dahanni
87.          Name three classical poets of Urdu.
Ans.        The classical poets of Urdu are:
                (i)            Mir Taqi Mir
                (ii)           Mirza Ghalib
                (iii)         Mir Dard
88.          Who is considered as the first poet of Pushto?
Ans.        Amir Krore is considered the first poet of Pushto.
89.          Which languages influence Sindhi Language?
Ans.        Sindhi language is influenced by Darawdi, Sanskrit, Greek, Turkish, Pushto and other languages.
90.          'Shah-Jo-Risalo' is the poetic collection of which poet?
Ans.        Shah-jo-Risalo is the poetic collection of famous Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai.
91.          Which civilization does Punjabi language has a link?
Ans.        Punjabi has its links with Hadmai or Draudi civilizations.
92.          Name the different styles of speech of Punjabi.
Ans.        The different styles of speech of Punjabi language are Mulsani, Saraiki, Shahpure, Potohari, etc.
93.          Name three classical poets of Punjabi.
Ans.        Three classical poets of Punjabi are:
                (i)            Shah Hussain
                (ii)           Bulleh Shah
                (iii)         Sultan Bahu
94.          Who wrote Hir Ranjha?
Ans.        Hir Ranjha was written by Waris Shah
95.          Which is the famous book of Hashim Shah?
Ans.        The famous tale of Hashim Shah is Sassi Panhu.
96.          Which language does Baluchi link to?
Ans.        Baluchi languages has its link with Aryan Languages.
97.          Write down the different style of speeches of Baluchi.
Ans.        The two styles of speeches of Baluchi are:
                (i)            Mehrani
                (ii)           Sulemani
98.          Name the ascents of Kashmiri.
Ans.        Kashmiri has many ascents. These are Salmani, Hindki, Gandro and Gami but Gandro leads all the ascents.
99.          Write down the salient features of the foreign policy of Pakistan.
Ans.        The following are fundamental principles of Pakistan's foreign policy.
                (i)            Protection of freedom and sovereignity.
                (ii)           Close relations with Muslim countries.
                (iii)         Keeping away from big power politics.
                (iv)          Support for self-determination
                (v)           Implementation of United Nations Charter
                (vi)          Promotion of peace and friendship
                (vii)        Non-Alignment
100.        Pakistan is the member of how many international organisations?
Ans.        Pakistan is the active member of the following internation organisations:
                (i)            United Nations Organisation (U.N.O.)
                (ii)           Non-Aligned Movement (N.A.M.)
                (iii)         Organization of Islamic Conference (O.I.C.)
                (iv)          Economic Cooperation Organization (E.C.O.)
101.        When was the foundation of United Nations laid?
Ans.        The foundation of United Nations (U.N.O.) was laid on 24th October, 1945.
102.        Name the organs of U.N.O.
Ans.        The organs of U.N.O. are:
                (i)            General Assembly
                (ii)           Security Council
                (iii)         Economic and Social Council
                (iv)          Trustee-Ship Council
                (v)           Secretariat
                (vi)          Internationl Court of Justice
103.        Name the agencies of U.N.
Ans.        There are several specialized bodies which are asssociated with the work of the United Nations. The most specialized bodies are:
                (i)            UNICEF - United Nations Internation Childeren Emergency Fund.
                (ii)           UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
                (iii)         FAO - Food and Agricultural Organisation
                (iv)          WHO - World Health Organisation
                (v)           ILO - International Labour Organisation
                (vi)          WB - World Bank
104.        What is the objective of Non-Aligned Movement?
Ans.        The main objective of Non-Aligned Movement was not to join any of the big powers and to keep away from big power politics.
105.        When was the foundation of R.C.D. laid?
Ans.        In July 1964, Iran, Pakistan and Turky with mutual understanding laid the foundation of R.C.D. (Regional Cooperation of Development). Now, its new name is Economic Cooperation Organization (E.C.O.).

Fill in the Blanks
1.                  The last viceroy of united India was Lord Mount Batten.
2.                  Sindh is known as Bab-ul-Islam.
3.                  The first O.I.C summit was held in Rabat, Morocco in 1969.
4.                  The second O.I.C summit was held in Lahore, Pakistan in 1974.
5.                  The third O.I.C summit was held in Makkah and Taif, Saudi Arabia in 1981.
6.                  The fourth O.I.C summit was held in Casablanca, Morocco in 1984.
7.                  The fifth O.I.C summit was held in Kuwait in 1987.
8.                  The sixth O.I.C summit was held in Dakar, Senegal in 1991.
9.                  The seventh O.I.C summit was held in Casablanca in 1994.
10.              The eighth O.I.C summit was held in Tehran, Iran in 1997.
11.              The highway linking Pakistan and China is called Shahrah-e-Karakoram.
12.              Pakistan became the member of U.N on 30th December 1947 and Afghanistan opposed it.
13.              Wheat and rice are the two most important food crops of Pakistan.
14.              The Objective Resolution was put forwarded by Liaquat Ali Khan in 1949.
15.              Khushal Khan Khatak and Rehman Baba are two famous Pushto poets.
16.              The State Bank was inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam in July 1948.
17.              The first constitution of Pakistan came into force on 23rd March 1956 and cancelled in 1958.
18.              The second constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on 1st March 1962.
19.              The third constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on 14th August 1973.
20.              Pakistan’s second Governor General and 2nd Prime Minister was Khwaja Nazimuddin.
21.              The Government of Pakistan imposed the system of Zakaat in the year 1980 and it is collected at 1/3 %.
22.              Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League in the year 1913.
23.              The Simla delegation was headed by Sir Aga Khan.
24.              Pakistan’s largest heavy engineering complex is situated at Texila, built with the help of China.
25.              The highest peak of Pakistan is K-2.
26.              Sui gas was found in the year 1952.
27.              Sir Red cliff was the chairman of boundary commission.
28.              The growth rate of Pakistan is 3%.
29.              The Lucknow Pact was signed between Muslim League and Congress in the year 1916.
30.              The first president of All India Muslim League was Sir Aga Khan.
31.              Quaid-e-Azam proposed his 14 points in the year 1929.
32.              The United Nations was founded in 24th October 1945.
33.              The first meeting of the Muslim League took place in the year 1908 at Karachi.
34.              The Cripps Mission visited India in 1942.
35.              Quaid-e-Azam was the first Governor General of Pakistan.
36.              The Cabinet Mission came to India in the year 1946 A.D and had 3 members.
37.              R.C.D (Regional Co-operation for Development) was established in 1964.
38.              Quaid-e-Azam gave his 14 points in reply to Nehru Report.
39.              Mount Batten announced his plan on 3rd June 1947.
40.              The first independent ruler of Muslim India was Qutubuddin Aibak.
41.              Allama Iqbal gave his historical address in the year 1930 A.D at Allahabad.
42.              Quaid-e-Azam appealed on 22nd December 1939 to observe Day of Deliverance or Yaum-e-Nijat/Tashakkur.
43.              Sindh has 4 divisions.
44.              Iskandar Mirza was the first president of Pakistan.
45.              Participation of Bengal took place in the year 1905A.D and cancelled in 1911 A.D.
46.              The two biggest hydraulic dams of Pakistan are Tarbela and Mangla.
47.              Pakistan was recognized as a republic in the year 1956.
48.              Hazrat Shah Wali-Ullah translated th e Holy Quran in Persian.
49.              Moen-jo-Daro was built 4000 years ago through a thought plan.
50.              The Muslim League was founded in 1906 at Dhaka due to the movement of Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan.
51.              All India Congress was founded by Allan .O.Hume in the year 1885 A.D.
52.              The first Prime Minister of Pakistan was Liaquat Ali Khan.
53.              The First World War started in 1914.
54.              The Second World War ended in 1945.
55.              Urdu is a Persian word it means camp.
56.              First Muslim General Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded Sindh.
57.              The highest court of Pakistan is Supreme Court.
58.              The Aligarh movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
59.              Quaid-e-Azam remained member of both Muslim League and Congress for 9 years.
60.              Badshahi Mosque was built by Aurangzeb Alamgir at Lahore.
61.              Sindh was separated from Bombay presidency in the year 1936 A.D.
62.              First Round Table Conference took place in London in 1930 A.D.
63.              Second Round Table Conference took place in London in 1931 A.D.
64.              General Zia-ul-Haq took office in 1977 A.D.
65.              Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th December 1876.
66.              Badshahi Mosque and Shahi Qila are the two building found in Pakistan that were built by Mughal Emperors.
67.              Pakistan’s two important agricultural crops are cotton and rice.
68.              Allama Iqbal was born at Sialkot in 1877.
69.              The last Mughal Emperor of India was Bahadur Shah Zafar.
70.              Pakistan’s largest steel mill is at Pipri (Karachi) formed by the cooperation of Russia.
71.              There are 4 natural regions of Paksitan.
72.              The mosque built by Shah Jahan is at Thatta.
73.              The duration of sixth five-year plan is 1985 – 1990.
74.              According to the 1972 census the literacy rate in Pakistan was 21.7% which grew to 26.2% in 1981.
75.              The true name of Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sane was Sheikh Ahmed.
76.              In the 1945 Muslim League won 30 Muslim seats in the central Assembly.
77.              The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence law in July 1947 or made the Indian participation plan into a law.
78.              The script of all Pakistani languages is similar and it is based on Quranic Script.
79.              Sind Madarsa –ul –Islam was founded by Hasan Ali Afandi.
80.              Paksitan earns its biggest share of foreign exchange from cotton.
81.              In 1974, Shah Faisal helped Pakistan in making arrangements to hold the Islamic Summit Conference.
82.              The first general elections of Paksitan were held in the year 1971.
83.              SAARC abbreviates for South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation.
84.              Syed Ameer Ali founded Muslim League’s branch at London in 1908.
85.              All Pakistani languages contain lots of words of Arabic and Persian.
86.              Immediately after independence from the British India forcefully annexed Hyderabad.
87.              Dakkan and Junagarh occupied a large territory of Kashmir.
88.              The 1974 nuclear exploitation showed the true face of Indian aggression.
89.              Congress started “Leave India Movement” in the year 1942.
90.              In 1761, Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marhatas at the battle field of Pani Patt.
91.              The first Mughal Emperor was Babar.
92.              The Mughal Emperor Akbar introduced the Deen-e-Elahi.
93.              Pakistani languages are greatly influenced from Arabic.
94.              Shah Abdul Latif and Sachal Sarmast are two important Sindhi poets.
95.              Two places famous for wooden crafts are Hala and Kashmor in Pakistan.
96.              The Indus Basin Treaty was signed between Pakistan and India in the year 1960.
97.              Sindh Muslim League passed a resolution in 1938.
98.              Nizami Mustafa movement was carried in the year 1977.
99.              The Hindu society is divided in 4 casts.
100.          Pakistan’s 70% population live in rural areas.
101.          The first Muslim League Government was formed in Sindh in 1943.
102.          Masjid Mahabat Khan is situated at Peshawar.
103.          Masjid Wazir Khan is situated at Lahore.
104.          Simla delegation met Lord Wevell in 1945.
105.          In year 1906 the Simla delegation headed by Sir Aga Khan met Lord Minto.
106.          Liaquat Ali Khan born in 1895 and become the secretary general of Muslim in 1936.
107.          Waris Shah wrote ‘Heer Ranjha.
108.          The total area of Pakistan is 796096 and total population according to 1981 census is 8,37,82,000 million/crores.
109.          Pakistann exploded its first atomic bomb at Chaghi in the year May 1998.
110.          Moen-jo-Daro is in the province of Sindh.
111.          The period of first five-year plan was 1955-1960.
112.          Pakistan joined the Non-Aligned Movement in the year 1979.
113.          The 1st conferences of NAM was held at Belgrade in 1961 and the second at Cairo.
114.          The fort of Lahore (Shahi Qila) was built by Jehangir.
115.          Sind was conquered by Mohammad Bin Qasim in the year 712.
116.          The head of the state is called President and head of the Government is called Prime Minister.
117.          The secretariat of O.I.C is at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and RCD at Tehran.
118.          R.C.D is now called R.E.C (Regional Economic Council.)
119.          The desert land of Sindh is called Thar and that Bhawalpur is called Cholistan.
120.          The first saint to came to South Asia, Hazrat Ali Hajveri is most important of all.
121.          Hazrat Amman Marvandi is known as Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.
122.          In 1942 Cripps mission was presented.
123.          In 1945-1946 elections Muslim League won all seats in central and 90% in provincial assembly.
124.          In 1945 Lord Wavell proposed the formation of a temporary Government consisting of the political parties of United India.
125.          According to 3rd June 1947 plan plebiscite was held in N.W.F.P and Silhoute.
126.          In the North of Kabul river Khyber Pass is situated which is 53 km long.
127.          In the 1973 constitution Islam was recognized as state religion.
128.          In Pakistan 30 languages are spoken.
129.          Rehman Baba is the sufi poet of Pushto poetry.
130.          Ameer Karoro is considered as first poet of Pushto.
131.          For a developing country like Pakistan Nuclear Power is very important.
132.          U.N has 159 members.
133.          The five principles passed by the Non.Aligned countries are called Punj Shilla.
134.          The members of R.C.D are Pakistan, Iran and Turkey.
135.          In 1909 separate elections principle was accepted.
136.          Sir Syed founded scientific society in 1862.
137.          The Khilafat conference meeting held at Karachi in 1921.
138.          The fundamental principle of our foreign policy is friendship with the nations of the world.
139.          Sir Syed brought out the digest “Tehzib –ul-Akhlaq in 1870.
140.          The first central office of Muslim league was established at Aligarh.
141.          The word Pakistan was proposed by Chaudry Rehmat Ali in a pamphlet named No and Never.
142.          The first constituent assembly of Pakistan was dissolved in the year 1954 and Mr.Maulvi Tamizuddin was its speaker.
143.          Under the constitution of 1973 the National Assembly consists of 207 Muslim members and the Senate consists of 87 members.