Saturday, September 19, 2009

commercial geography.......


Plain

The Upper Indus Plain
The Northern part of Indus Plain is known as Punjab (West and East)nthe greater portion of which lies in Pakistan .The level plain is largely made of fertile alluvium deposited by the river Indus and its rubutaries.Orly near Sargodha,Chiniot and Sangla,some old dry hills rise above the plain known as the Kirana hills.
The land which lies between two rivers is known as "doab" .The Punjab plain is,therefore,divided into several doabs e.g.The Bari doab (land between Sutlej and Ravi),the Rechna doab (land between the Ravi and the Chenab),the Chaj doab (land between the Chenab and the Jhelum) and the Sindh Sagar doab (land between the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj doab).
The land in the center of the doab rises to an elevated land called "bar" e.g,the Nili Bar (between the Sutlej and the Beas),the Ganji Bar (the old course of the beas and the Ravi),the Sandal Bar (in the middle of the Rechna Doab) and the Kirana Bar (in the middle of the Chaj Doab).
The Sub Mountain plain area ,west of the indus known as "Derajat" is divided into the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.
The annually flooded riverine area is called "Bet" and agriculturally is the most important area.
The Lower Indus Plain
Below Mithonkot in Sindh, the Indus carries not only its own water but also that of its five big tributarfes..The river flows very slowly and the silt carried by it is largely deposil on its bed,there fore severe floods are experienced,but the soil is very fertile.
The area is marked by ox-bow lakes locally called "Dhoros" and small salt lakes called "Dhands".
West of the Indus lies the high Kirtan prdment plain which slopes gently to the river.

Economic Importance
1.Both upper and lower Indus plain are the most important agricultural areas in Pakistan .Wheat ,rice ,cotton,sugar cane,malze,barley,millets,grains,,oil seeds,tobacco and fruits are the main crops.
2.The plain areas produce the bulk of food grains,agricultural raw ,material ,vast market,food poducts and manufactured goods.Hence most of the Pakistan's greatest industries are located in the plains.
3.These plains with gentle slope ,levelled lopography are suitable for the construction of canals.Our Pakistan has got world's one of the most exellent system of irrigation.
4.The ease of mobility on plains also facilitates the exchange of foods,hence Pakistan's roads and railways are found mobily in the plain areas.
5.The economic activities of man are the greatest in the plains also the developed,civilized,cultured areas,greatest cities consontration of population in Pakistan are found in there areas.
6.Actually the plain areas are the gift of the Indus and its tributariesn .Also these plains are the cradles of the old civilization e.g.Mohen-jo-daro in Sindh and Harrappa in Punjab.

The Desert Regions
There are three different desert areas located in Punjab and Sindh e.g.:
1.Thal Desert:
More than three fourth of the Sindh Sagar Doab is still a desert or semi-desert (in between Chenab-Jhelum and indus river).
2.The area in South of Bahawalpur is an arid waste of shifting sand and is known as "Cholistan".
3.In the eastern parts of the Khairpur and Tharparkar districts,the desert areas are known as "Pat" and "Thar" respectively.
Economic Importance
Annual rainfall is less than 5.Population is very sparse Agriculture is carried on with the help of durigation.Also rearing of animals is carried on to some extent.

The Indus Delta
The Indus Delta is marked by a number of tributaries of the Indus River,from Thatta to Arabian Sea.Most of the part is covered with mangrove swamps.The eastern part is more swampy than the western.Most of the area is barren.Agriculture is carried out in small patches.
Economic Importance
The major part of the delta is burren.Agriculture is practiced in small patches.The irrigational facilities provided by the Kotri Barrage have made it possible to reclaim a vast area of the delta.

Coastal Areas
Pakistan has about 600 miles of coastline ,about 150 miles of which is in Sindh from Kutch to Karachi and about 450 miles long coast is in Baluchistan from Karachi to Jiwani.
Economic Importance
The progress of any country depends upon its coastal importance.International trade with the out side world is carried on through its ports.For this purpose,in Pakistan,the ports of Karachi and port Qasim are of very great importance .Also these ports have great defence value.Majority of the coastal population are fishermen.Fish is not only consumed as food internally,but it is also a source of earning foreign exchange.

Population

Details of Population
Since Independence the population of Pakistan has increased four-fold from 32.5 million in 1947 to 117.32 million on January 1,1992 of which :
47,063,000 live in Punjab
19,029,000 live in Sindh
11,062,000 in NWFP
4332,000 live in Baluchistan
2,198,00 live FATA
340,000 live in Islamabad
(FATA-Fedrally Administered Tribal Area)

Rate of Population Growth
The growth of Population depends upon the net addition of the people which is related to the behavior of three factors,migration,birth rate and death rate.
Pakistan being a developing country provides no attraction for the people from the other parts of the world and so the influence of migration on its population growth is almost negligible .It is therefore clear that the rate of population growth in the country is influenced by the difference between the birth and death rates.
Therefore, the high rate of growth is due to natural increase, that is,the excess of births over deaths.Pakistan has one of the highest rates of Population growth in the World.The population is increasing at the rate of 3.1% per anum as against 3.5% for Mexico,2.3% for India,2% for China,1.6% for U.S.A ,2% for Asia and Africa ,1% for Europe and average rate 1.8% for the whole world.At this speed of growth ,the total population by the year 2000 will touch 150 million.

Population Density
Density of population refers to the number of people living per square km.Its study is important because through it the pressure on the land can be measured and also magnitude of the requirements of the people can be assessed .It also becomes the base for economic planning.
The density of population in Pakistan,according to the 1981 census,is estimated at 106 persons per sq.km.as against 82 persons in 1972 census.The density,however,varies widely between provinces.The Punjab has the highest density of 230 persons,compared to 12 persons per sq.km.for Baluchistan,135 for Sindh,148 for NWFP ,81 for FATA and 376 for Islamabad.

Causes of Difference in Density of Population
1.The more densely populated centres of Pakistan are situated in the Urban areas,which are the busiest centres of trade and commerce.Besides,so many industries have also developed around these areas.The surrounding areas,around Lahore,Faisalabad and Gujranwala,are very fertile.The irrigation facilities are available ,so the necessities of life can be had easily.The employment facilities in different industrial and commercial units are also available.That is why the population of rural area is migrating towards these Urban centres and their population is increasing very rapidly.
2.The areas situated in the plains are more densely populated than the mountain,regions,because the mountains having pugged topography are not suitable for agricultural activities.Besides,in winter, due to intense cold,snowfall is common and the mean of transportation become ineffective the establishment of industries not possible in these areas due to scarcity of resources.That these areas are thinly populated.
3.In the plains ,the density if population also differs in various regions.The areas of Punjab and Sindh there irrigation facilities and other resources are available,density of population is more than the dry Barani areas.Lahore,Faisalabad,Gujranwala,Multan districts are more dense than Attock,Jhelum and Dera Ghazi Khan districts.Similarly in Sindh,Hyderabad,Larkana,Nawabshah districts are more densely populated than Tharparkar,Thatta,Dadu and Sanghar Districts.

4.Those areas which are situated far away and where climate is intense,irrigation facilities are not available ,rain is meager and there is scarcity of resources,even the water for drinking purpose has to be brought from long distances,there density of populatBirth and Death Rates

1.Birth Rate
Birth rate in Pakistan also figures highest in the World.In 1988 it stood at 41 per 100 persons.Factors responsible for the high birth rate in our country are :
(i) Climatic Conditions
(ii) Poverty
(iii) Ill-Literacy
(iv) Social Convention
(v) Psychology of the people
(vi) Economic Conditions and to marry in the early age and
(vii) Religious minded people.
2.Death Rate
Death rate in Pakistan ,particularly of women and infants is very high.In 1988 it stood at 11 per 100 persons.It is because of this factor that the average age in Pakistan is below 30 years.

Distribution of Population in Pakistan
(A)Rural/Urban Distribution
The basis of Urbanity of settlement in Pakistan is its administrative organization (metropolitan, municipality,town committee,cantonment, civilizations,satellite town) and size (5,000 persons or over).Pakistan is pre-dominantly an agricultural country,inspite of the developments of the last more than three decades in the field of industry and commerce.Hence,the vast majority of the population lives in rural areas.

The table below gives the percentage of the population of Pakistan by Arban/Rural areas during the last four censuses:

Census Year -----------------------Percentage of Population Rural



...................................'Urban..................................Rural
1951------------------------------17.8%-----------------------------------------82.2%
1961------------------------------22.50%----------------------------------------77.50%
1972------------------------------25.48%----------------------------------------74.52%
1981------------------------------28.28%----------------------------------------71.72%
Percentage figures of urban population to the total since the beggining of regular censuses in the country,indicate a general acceleration of growth of urban population.The rate of natural increase of urban population has been lower than that of rural population.The higher rate of growth of urban population is,therefore,largely a result of rural-urban migration.
1.Dense Population
With the passage of time ,the village autonomy and solidarity crumbled under impact of economic forces conductive to rural urban migration.The "freedom" of the city or the availability of greater job opportunities in the town acted as a magnet.
The process of industrialization has involved marked shifts with the use of material and human resources.It has altered the occupational large-scale movement of population from rural to the urban areas.
Pakistan is essentially dry with a large area of un-productive and barren land.For example,in the hills and sandy wastes of Sindh and Baluchistan,the population is very sparse.By contrast,the fertile Indus plain supports a fairly dense population.Since,with the help of irrigation.It is possible to grow good crops there.The highest density-over 2,000 persons per square kilometer is in Karachi division and 1,984 persons per sq.km.is found in Lahore division.This is,of course,due to that city's great urban,commercial and industrial development.In the same way,other industrial districts like Faisalabad,Hyderabad,Peshawar,Rawalpindi and Mardan are densely populated.
In most of the metropoliton centres,improvement of facilities has called to keep pace with the rapid growth of population and these cities can be said overgrown.The distances to be covered are long and the means of transport and the width of the roads in adequate and these cities are also known as city of problems or city of smoke.
The historical evolution of the cities has been such that they have two distinct parts,the old and the modern.The modern sections have wide roads,impressive lay-out and expensive buildings.The old city suffers from narrow roads and alleys,closest and small buildings and residential over crowding .Also,problems of "Katchi Abadis" are also growing rapidly.
2.Sparsely Populated Areas
Before the advent of canal irrigation the population of rural areas was very sparse.After the construction of canals,water became available to areas away from the rivers,new settlements grew in the irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab and there was a continuous rise of population.On the other side ,sparsely populated areas in the country are :
(i) The Northern and Western hill tracts
(ii) The dry plateau of Baluchistan
(iii) The desert areas of Thal,Thar and Cholistan
In these regions,low rainfall and soll that is either sandy or stone have resulted in barren or waste lands.For these reasons cultivation is difficult.As a result ,the density of population is less than 50 persons per sq.km.In the more barren regions of Kalat Division,there are only 10 persons per sq.km. and in Chaghi and Kharan,where less than three percent of the area is cultivated,the density falls as low as two.

(B) Distribution of Sex
The last three population censuses estimates and also that of 1992 are as follows:
Census Year-----------------Total-------------- Male---------------------------------Female
1961-------------------------- 42,978-------------23,017 -------------------------------19,961
1972---------------------------65,321-------------34,840--------------------------------30,481
1981---------------------------84,253-------------44,232--------------------------------40,021
1992---------------------------11,7310------------61,000--------------------------------56,310
(estimated)

(C) Distribution By Age
According to 1981 census the distribution of population by age is as under:
(1) Under 15 years-44.04%
(ii) 15 to 54 years-51.84%
(iii) 65 years and above-4.12%
It will be observed that people falling in the age group (15 t 54) years may be considered working population which is 51.84%,remaining 48.16% is the dependent population .The high degree of dependency is due to the high proportion of children in the total population.

(D) Literacy-Wise Population
In Pakistan the literate people in towns is higher than in villages.Similarly it is higher in men than in women.Ratio of educated men and women is 23% and 7.5% respectively.Among the literate persons in Pakistan only 3.15% have been educated upto secondary school level or above.According to the present census report,only 20% of the workers are educated .Only 0.40% of the total population have done their B.A Even fewer are highly educated.

Agriculture and Its Problems in Pakistan


Introduction
From time Immemorial,agriculture has been the major occupation of the people of Pakistan.Even today agriculture is a major sector and occupies a very important place in the economy of Pakistan.It not only provides food for our growing population but is a source of raw materials for our principal industries as well as a source of foreign exchange for our government.
32% of our gross domestic products belong to this sector.It engages 53% of our employed labour .About 75% of our people are engaged directly or indirectly with this profession.A large part (about 10%) of Pakistan's exports is made up of primary commodities ,including the major cash crops.In addition to this major large scale industries like cotton textile and sugar etc.as well as medium and small scale agro-based and cottage industries are directly dependent on this sector for their raw materials.

Problems
Following are the causes of our backwardness in agriculture:
1.Lack of Education
The farmers of our country are mostly un-educated and lack technical knowledge .They are unable to unde4rstand the modern scientific methods of agriculture and often remain ignorant of good means to protect and increase their yield.Their production is therefore low.
2.Lack of Capital
The majority of our farmers are poor and they often live in a hand to mouth position.Most of them are always under heavy burdens of debts.So due to lack of capital they cannot afford to purchase modern scientific implements,chemical manures,improved types of seeds etc.Hence they can not attain the required standards.
3.Following the Old Traditions
Most of our farmers are still stuck to the old traditions of their fore fathers.The circumstances have compelled them to use the crude implements,because due to small holdings of land and poverty they are unable to acquire and use modern scientific methods.That is why their standard is lower than that of cultivators in developed countries.
4.Water-logging and Salinity
Due to excessive use of canal water,most of our cultivated lands have become victims of these two dangerous diseases.Every year ,salinity alone,is turning about 1,00,000 acres of arable land into marches and salt lands.Water-logging is no less injurious.On the other hand the measures taken so far are quite inadequate for such issues.
5.Uneconomical Land Holdings
Due to our law of inheritance,our farmers command very small pieces of hands which prove to be costly.A farmer cannot afford tractors and other machineries for a small piece of land and those his income is low.Hence his interest is converted to some other sector.
6.Scarcity of Water
Our farmers have to face many problems due to scarcity of water which is one our major problems.Large tracts of land estimated to be about 22 million acres is lying uncultivated due to shortage of water.Rainfall is uncertain and the existing irrigational facilities in our country are quite insufficient and need to be extended.
7.Land Tenure System
The land tenure system of Pakistan has creates a chain of intermediatries in between the state and the tenants.The system,instead of being conductive to agricultural development ,stands in the way of its progress.
8.Soil Erosion
In some areas of our country,especially in hilly regions,the upper fertile soil is being eroded by different natural agents of change .Thus the fertility is poor and soils are becoming less productive.
9.Lack of Organized Marketing
The marketing facilities for agricultural products in Pakistan are still far from satisfactory level.Our cultivators can not get just prices for their produce due to defective marketing organization. Moreover the chain of middlemen between the producers and ultimate consumers take a heavy share of their produce .Thus the cultivators do not take much real interest in increasing their product too.
10.Pests and Crop Diseases
Due to lack of agricultural education and methods of modern research,our farmers cannot control the various diseases of crops and attacks of pests and insects.The result is low yields.
11.Poor Means of Transportation
The agricultural activities in our country are performed in rural areas,but most of our villages have no road or railway links with our markets.So farmers have to face innumerable hardships to sell their products.Hence the farmers take very little interest in their profession and production suffers.
12.Lack of Credit Facilities
The resources required for agricultural operation are land,layout,live stock,farm equipment, seeds,fertilizers,irrigation,transport etc.For the convenient and timely procurement of these resources the farmers must have easy access to credit.The A.D.B.P and commercial banks provide loans to the farmers which are insufficient because our farmers are very poor.
13.Low Yield Per Acre
Due to the above mentioned facts ,it is clear that the yield per acre of various crops in our country is comparatively low than of the other countries.Hence we are backward agriculturally.

Suggestions Or Remedies To Overcome The Problems
1.Reclamation of Land
The land which has been declared useless due to salinity and water-logging should be reclaimed.Tube-wells should be installed in the affected areas to decrease the salinity.Beds of new canals should be made of concrete to avoid water-logging.These measures should be taken on priority basis to avoid further deterioration of land .
2.Irrigation Facilities
The major problem of agriculture in Pakistan is scarcity of water.Most of the land is lying unused due to this problem.Therefore,it is necessary that the irrigation facilities be extended for increasing agricultural out put.
3.The Use Of Fertilizers
The agricultural yield can also be increased to a great extent by using fertilizers.The use of artificial manure should be introduced through out the country.Due to poverty and illiteracy our farmers hesitate to purchase the fertilizers.
4.Credit Facilities
The use of better seeds,fertilizers and modern implements is not possible without adequate credit facilities for the farmers.The government has extended the existing credit facilities to a large extent. The commercial banks also grant loans to the farmers,but still there is a need for more facilities as our farmers are very poor.
5.Better Seeds
The farmers should be provided better quality seeds at the lowest price and at the right time.Better seeds will ultimately give better yield.
6.Plant Protection
Various plant diseases damage a large part of our crops.But our farmers have no effective control over them.Therefore,preventive and neurative measures should be taken throughout the country.
7.Mechanization
Mechanization of agriculture refers to the use of various equipments the different stages of cultivation.By the use of modern equipments better results can be achieved in the shortest time.
8.Co-operative Farming
Co-operative farming refers to the farming done on the basis of mutual help and co-operation.Under this method the small holdings are consqildated .In this way the owners of small holdings can also use fertilizers and modern equipments jointly.After harvesting,the yield can be distributed among the owners according to their ownership.
9.Education Level
Increase of literacy ratio in rural areas especially in agre-education is the need of the day.The more educated the farmers will be the better will be the results achieved.
10.Marketing Facilities
Marketing procedures should be simplified and various marketing facilities should be provided to the cultivators.
11.Improvement In The Means Of transportation And Communication
The rural areas of the country must be provided with road and railway links with marketing centres and better means of transport and communication should be provided.

Climatic Regions of Pakistan

Climate
The atmospheric conditions at any conditions at any place are known as weather.Climate is a generalization of the day to day weather conditions during the course of a year.It means average weather,including its variation from season to season.Temperature ,pressure,wind rainfall etc.are the composite parts or elements of climate.The climate of a particular place is controlled by several geographical ractors like:
(a) Distance from the equator
(b) Distance from the Sea
(c) Altitude or height above sea level etc.

Climate of Pakistan
The whole of Pakistan lies in the warm temperate zone.It lies roughly between 24 degree N and 37degree N latitude.Pakistan is noted for hot summer and cold winters with semi-arid to arid conditions prevailing in most parts,sub-humid conditions in a small area in the north.The topographic diversity and location of large areas a long distance from the sea have all the more intensified the climate contrasts.The rainfall is generally low .The monsoons bring such marked characteristics that a seasons in Pakistan.
1.Winter season (from November to February)
2.Summer season (from March to June)
3.Monsoon or Rainy season (from July to October)

Climatic Regions Of Pakistan
Keeping in view the various climatic factors,Pakistan can be divided into the following climatic regions:
1.Sub-Tropical Continental Highland Type
This region includes the mountains in the North and West of the Indus plain.In this region winters are cold and lengthy and often the temperatures goes below the freezing point; and the higher peaks remain snow -covered throughout the year.But here summer remains short cool and temperature .The North Western mountain areas have less amount of rainfall as compared to North Eastern mountains,e.g.from South of Kohat and Waziristan rainfall decreases,so Quetta division in Baluchistan has a dry climate and there the mean annual rainfall is not more than 50 to 100 millimeters.It mostly comes during winter and spring .The North Western mountainous areas are less fertile and have barren rocks without any natural vegetation.Due to some rain in winter and spring,some grass and shrubs appear,which promotes the rearing of sheep and goats.
2.Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau Type
This region includes the north western part of Baluchistan Province.Here winters are cold ,and in summer temperature goes higher enough and often dust storms prevail .Although it has higher altitude ,but due to poor rainfall,these have turned into arid desert.In these areas there is scarcity of rain water and it is less than 10 inches or 25 cm.annually ,but some of the places of these areas have the lowest rainfall e.g.Nokundi has only 1.95 inches or 5 cm.of rainfall annually,and rain often comes during the months of January and February.
3.Sub-Tropical Continental Low Lands Type
This region includes the interior areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces.It has generally arid and extreme climate.Here summer remains long and hot,but winters are cool and short.It has the hotest places of the country such as Jaccobabad and Sibbi.
The rainy season begins in the middle of the summer months.The places which are situated near pledmont areas have enough rainfall e.g. Sialkot has about 30 inches or 88.3 cm. of annual rainfall.But the western part of this plain is drier than the eastern due to very poor rainfall e.g. Thal and Cholistan desert in Punjab and Nara and Tharparker desert in Sindh.
4.Sub-Tropical Coastal Areas Type
This region includes the coastal strip around Karachi and Makran coast in Baluchistan.Here due to the influence of the sea,the temperature remains moderate ;the rainfall is about 7 inches or 18 cm.annually,but due to proximity of the sea ,a large amount of humidity remains in the atmosphere.The influence of sea breeze during day time is felt throughout the summer.

Irrigation

Need And Importance Of Irrigation
1.Most of the plain areas of Pakistan have been built by alluvial soil brought by the River Indus and its tributaries.But due to deficient rainfall ,agricultural activities cannot be performed without adopting some artificial means of irrigation.So the areas lying between the rivers have provided irrigation facilities through canals and various types of crops are grown in these areas.
2.The Rivers of our country used to take millions of gallons of water into the Arabian Sea.That water is being used for canal irrigation and a number of dry desert areas have become fertile and productive regions of our country.
3.The supply of water in our rivers remains irregular during the year.To regulate the water supply throughout the year the year the water is stored by constructing barrages,dams and weirs etc.
4.The slope of our country lies from north east towards south.This helps in the construction of canals and water can easily be distributed through canals from higher regions to lower areas.
5.All the rivers of our country come from snow-covered mountainous areas,having abundance of rainfall in summer ,in those rivers a huge amount of water comes due to heavy rainfall and the melting of snow during summer.Thus we store this surplus water in huge dams which is used for irrigation purposes in dry season.
6.The upper and lower areas of Indus plain have soft soil,where digging of canals is easier,and cheap labour is available in abundance.That reduces the cost of construction.That is why canal irrigation is preferred in our country.
7.Canal water adds to the fertility of the soil by bringing a number of organic and in-organic matters with it,while the water of tube -wells lacks all these matters,so people prefer canal irrigation.
8.Canal irrigation is the cheapest and easiest means by which vast areas can be commanded and made productive.

Means Of Irrigation In Pakistan
The following means of irrigation are practiced in various areas of our country:
1.Wells or Tube-wells:
This is one of the oldest methods of irrigation which is being used from ancient times in our country.Well irrigation is quite common in pledmont areas of North Eastern mountains and in the vicinity of rivers where the water-table is high.They are found all over the plain where canal water is not available and water table is high enough for their construction.Many shallow wells are dug by hand the areas where the water table is not far below the surface of the earth .The water is then lifted by "Charas" or "Persian wheels" driven by oxen or camels.
In areas where the water table is low and cheap electric power is available ,tube wells are used;due to shortage of canal irrigation water ,government is encouraging the farmers to dig more and more tube wells.
2.Canals:
Irrigation from rivers is an ancient practice.It was being carried before the birth of christ in various areas of our country,but the modern system of large perennial canals was introduced by the Britishers.The first modern canal in Punjab was opened in 1859;it was taken out from river Ravi at madhopur (Gurdaspur district,India).After that a number of canals have been taken out from various rivers and our country has got one of the most excellent systems of irrigation in the world.The canals found in our country may be divided into the following types:
(a)Perennial Canals:
Those canals which supply water to their commanded areas throughout the year are known as perennial canals.To regulate the supply dams and barrages have been built.Most of the canals of our country are of this type.
(b)Non Perennial Canals:
Such canals runs only during the summer and the rainy season .They are closed down during winter months when there is not enough water in the rivers.Some of the canals from Sutlej ,the Sidhnal canals from Ravi and Haveli canals from Chenab are of this type.Only one crop can be harvested in the commanded areas of such types of canals.
(c) Inundation or Flood Canals:
These canals work only during the rainy season,when the rivers have a plenty of water .Because no dam or barrage is built at their head ,their construction cost being low,they also help in reducing the flood water and save the area from many dangers.Many old canals from the Indus and Chenab are of this type.
(d)Karez:
In Baluchistan short underground canals called Karez have been built to carry the water which soaks into the ground at the foot of the mountains to the fields and villages .As the canals are underground no water is wasted by evaporation.In Queta and Pashin districts this system is very popular and a large area of this region is irrigated by the Karez system.

Canal Systems

The irrigated area is served by more than 40 major canal commands.Main canals start from a barrage or dam or weir on a river.A barrage feeds one or more main or link canals.A number of minor tributaries feed out of the main canal and these in turn,serve a number of outlets to the farmers water-courses each of which irrigates between 60 and 240 hectares.
There are three major groups of canal system :
(i) Canals on upper Indus Tributaries
(ii) Systems on the Indus
(iii) Systems west of the Indus.

(i) Systems On Upper-Indus Tributaries

The principal canal systems are:from the Jhelum,(a) Upper Jhelum canal,which starts from Mangla,joins the Chenab at Khanki to give its surplus water to the lower Chenab canal,and (b) the Lower Jhelum canal which starts from Rasul:from the Chenab (a) the upper Chenab canal starting from marala and joining the Ravi near Ballokin to supplement the water supply of the Lower Bari Doab canal,(b) the lower Chenab canal from Khanki,and (c) the Haveli system of canals from the Trimu weir below the junction of the Chenab and the Jhelum;from the Ravi,(a) the upper Bari Doab canal,which begins in Madhopur (India),irrigating mainly the Indian Punjab,with only its Lahore branch reaching Pakistan,(b)the Lower Bari Doab canal from Balakot and (c) the Sidhanaj Canals from the left bank of the Ravi at Sidhnal ;from the Sutlej,the Sutlej valley project,in which canals depart from the river Gandas in Ghwala,Sulaimanke,Islam and below the juction of the Sutlej with the Chenab at Panjnad.
The upper Jhelum,the upper Chenab,and the lower Bari Doab canals together form The Triple Project ,which was designed to carry surplus water from the Jhelum to the Chenab ,and from the Chenab to the Ravi.

(ii) Systems On The Indus

The largest dam on the Indus has been built at Tarbela.Other barrages,in descending order along the river,are Jinnah barrage near Kalabagh,part of the Thal project;Taunsa Barrage 290 km.further downstream,which has 100,000 kw power station in addition to diversion works;Guddu Barrage,150 km.upstream from Sukkar;Sukkur or Liodyd Barrage,the oldest barrage on the river,and Ghulam Mohammad Barrage,near Kotri.

(iii) Systems West of The Indus

These include (a) the Swat Canals departing from the river at Malakand (upper Swat canal) and Abazal (Lower Swat Canal); (b) the warsak Multipupose Project on the Kabul River 30 kms.north west of Peshawar which includes a 160,000 KW power plant;and (c) the kurram Garhi Project on the kurram and barren rivers in Bannu tehsil.
In addition to these major projects.Some smaller dams have also been built by the Water and power Development Authority (WAPDA).These include reil Dam,Gomal Dam Multi-Purpose Project Khanpur Dam,and Hab Dam.The Agricultural Development Corporation has set up the small Dam Organization to construct dams of localized utility storing the flood water of hill stream.A number of such dams have been constructed in the dry sub-mountain areas of the north west.

Mangla And Tarbella Dam

The Mangla Dam

Under the Indus Basin Treaty,this is the second largest multi-purpose project designed to control and conserve the flood water of the Jhelum for use mainly as replacement irrigation supplies for the area which was served by the three eastern rivers.On the Jhelum river near the village of the Mangla,about two miles upstream from the regulator of the upper Jhelum Canal and about 20 miles from Jhelum town,a dam of the embankment type has been built.The dam has crest length of about 11,000 feet and its height is 380 feet.The reservoir created by the dam is about 40 miles long,having a storage capacity of 5.5 million acre feet.It is the second largest earth filled dam of our country.The project is providing 400,000 kilowatts of electricity and 88 lakh acre feet water for irrigation purposes.The design of the dam has a provision for future extension.Its height can also be increased about 99 feet and storage capacity can also be increased upto 9.6 million acre feet and electricity generated can also be increased from the present 400,000 k.w. to one million k.w. The Mangla lake has been developed as a fishing centre and a health and tourist resort.This project was completed in 1967.

The Tarbela Dam

This is one of the largest earth and rock filled dam in the world.This dam has been built on the river Indus at Tarbela,15 miles from maripur and 30 miles from Attock.This is also a multipurpose project .The dam has a gross storage capacity of 11.1 million acre feet.It is 9,000 feet long and 485 feet high.A 50 mile long lake has been built behind it.It will provide 21 lakh kilowatts of electricity and 93 lakh acre feet of water for irrigation when completed .It construction started in 1968 under the Indus Basin Treaty,and the dam was completed in 1974.The installation of 10 units of electricity has been completed in 1985.There is proposal of or the tarbela project that 2 large off-channel reservoirs will have to be built to increase storage and lengthen the life of the generating facilities,since silting is expected to reduce the life of main dam.Water from Tarbela will be used in the Haro and Soan Basins and for replacement the supplies will be diverted to the Chashma Jhelum link canal and thence to the Trimmu-Sidhnaj-Mailsi-Bahawal link system.This project will help other barrages to retain the supply of water.

Barrages

According to Indus Basin Treaty five barrages have been built and various link canals have been taken out from these barages.

1.Chashma Barrage

A barrage has been built on River Indus at Chashma .A link Canal has been taken out from the right bank of Chashma providing water to canals of jhelum and Chenab.The work of Chashma wast Bank is under progress.It is hoped that after completion,this canal will irrigate large area of barren land in Dera ismail Khan and dera Ghazi Khan districts.
The other Barrages from where the following link canals have been taken out are:
1. Rasul at Jhelum
2. Near Qadirabad on Chenab
3. Near Sighnaj on Ravi
4. Near Mailsi below the existing Islam headworks on the Sutlej.
All these Barrages have a total length of nearly 3 1/2 miles.These barrages are providing about 100,000 cusecs of water to their link canals.

Link Canals

1.The Rasul-Qadirabad :

A 30 miles long canal has been built linking Rasul with Qadirabad and 19,000 cusecs water has been brought from Jhelum to Chenab.

2.Qadirabad-Balloki:

Qadirabad-Baloki link canal is supplying 18,600 cusec combine water of Jhelum and Chenab to Ravi at baloki.It is about miles long.

3.The Balloki Sulemanki Link:

This link canal is providing 6,500 cusec water of Ravi to the Sutlej canals ,e.g.Pakpattan and Depalpur canals.

4.The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal:

This link canal is 63 miles long and it is supplying 21,700 cusecs water of Indus from Chashma to Jhelum so that the supply of water at Trimmu head works can be maintained.

5.Trmmu-Sidhnal Link Canal:

Trmmu-Sidhnal link canal is providing 11,000 cusec combined water of Indus ,Jhelum and chenab at Sidhnal on Ravi

6.The Sidhnal-Mailsi-Bahawal Link:

It is a sixty miles long canal,which is carrying the Indus,Jhelum and Chenab waters to the Islam headwrks canals from the Sutlej.

7.The Taunsa-Punjnad Link Canal:

This link canal is 38 miles long .It is carrying the Indus water for use at the Panjnad headworks.The link canals have a total length of 388 miles with a total capacity of about 100,000 cusec,but the present supply of water from the canal is insufficient for our requirements and a large amount of water is obtained from tube wells and other means.

Agricultural Crops of Pakistan

Introduction

Agricultural activities in plain areas of Pakistan are performed in two seasons.Those crops which are cultivated before the beginning of winter season and harvested in early summer are known as "Rabi Crops".They include wheat ,barley ,grams,oil seeds,pulses e.t.c.But those crops which are grown in the beginning in summer and their picking or harvesting takes place in early winter are called "Kharif Crops".These may include Rice,Sugarcane,Millets,Maize etc.The following are the main crops cultivated in Pakistan:

Sugar Cane (Cash Crop)

Introduction

Sugar cane is an important cash crop of Pakistan.All available evidences indicate that Sugar Cane originated in Indo-Pak sub-continent.The description of sugar cane is found in the Indian mythological literature of 1000 B.C.
It is a type of long grass "perennial" in nature.The first crop is called "plant cane" and the succeeding crops are called "Ratoon Crops".Although it is a plant of tropical regions but it can also be cultivated in sub-tropical areas.

Uses of Sugar Cane

Sugar cane is used for sweetening purposes.It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar.Gur,Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane.The left out stalk fibers (bagasse) are used in the paper industries are as fuel and cattle food.

Favourable Conditions For Its Growth

1. Temperature

Sugarcane is a crop of wet tropical lands .From eight to twenty four months elapse between 65 degree F to 85degree F.Little or no growth takes place at a temperature below 60 degree F.Frost is very dangerous to young cane and sever frost during the period of ripening causes inversion of the sucrose.The sugarcane needs a minimum of 250 frost free days.

2. Water

Heavy precipitation is beneficial during the early and intermediate stage of crop growth,but a dry season is desirable before harvest.It grows well in areas having rainfall of more than 40 degree annually.It is very sensitive to dought conditions.Stagnant water is very damaging.In our country Sugarcane is cultivated in canal irrigated areas since the rainfall is below 20" which is not sufficient.

3.Soils

Sugarcane can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy loams the heavy clays but sill loams and clay loams are most suitable.It is grown primarily on both alluvial and red soils.The soil should contain some elements of lime,potash and nitrogen.

4.Land

The best land for sugarcane is flat or undulating and fertile with topsoil that retains moisture and sub soils that permit drainage.Therefore the main Sugarcane area in Pakistan is located in the canal colonies of the fertile Indus valley.

Sugarcane Cultivation

In Pakistan,Sugarcane is cultivated in the spring season in the month of February or March.It is harvested in November or December .Sugarcane is included in both Rabi and Kharif Crops.It is a "perennial " crop.The first crop is called "plant cane" and the succeeding crops are called "ratoon crops" .Generally good yields from ratoon crops are obtained only in one or two years.

Sugarcane Growing Areas

In Pakistan,a sub tropical continental climate milltates against the growing of thick canals.All the areas of our country are not suited to the growth of Sugarcane.It is mostly cultivated in canal irrigated areas of Punjab,N.W.F.P and Sindh provinces.

1. Punjab:

Faisalabad,Sargodha,Multan,Bahawalpur,Lahore and Gujranwala division are famouse for Sugar cane production.

2. Sindh:

Hyderabad division ranks first and Sukkur division second in the production of Sugar cane .

3. N.W.F.P

Mardan and Peshawar districts are at the top and some amount of Sugar cane is also produced in the districts of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan.

Average And Production

The following table shows areas,production and yield per hectare of sugarcane during the last three years:
Period Area...............Production...........Yield Per Hectare
(000 Hectares)................(000 Tones)...........(Tones)
1989-90 854 ..................35494.................41.56
1990-91 884...................35889.................40.71
1991-92 877...................34210.................39.00
(provisional)

Cotton (Cash Crop)

Introduction

Cotton is considered to be the most important cash crop of Pakistan.Pakistan,ranks fifth in world cotton production.It is outstanding among vegetable,animal and synthetic fibers,accounting for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth.Besides the preparation of a number of its products ,we also earn a large amount of foreign exchange from its export to other countries .Its importance may be estimated from the fact that it contributes 15% to the G.N.P The entire textile industry directly or indirectly depends upon it.It provides employment to 2/3rd of industrial labour force.

Biological And Historical Reference

Cotton is also known as the "Silver Fiber" .It is a wooly fibre surrounded around the seeds of the plant the longing to genus "Gossypium".It is known to have been produced in the Indus plain since 3000 B.C.

Favourable Conditions For Its Growth

1. Temperature:

Humid tropical and sub-tropical savanna climates are both conductive to cotton growth .At the time of cultivation it requires temperature ranging between 80 degree F to 100 degree F but at the time of picking 50 degree F to 60 degree F temperature remains sufficient.Frost or severe cold is dangerous for its growth.As produced commercially,cotton requires a growing season of atleast 180 to 200 frost-free days.

2. Water:

A minimum precipitation amount of 20" and a maximum of 40" per year is considered to be the optimum requirement for cotton cultivation.The annual rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20" which is insufficient ,so without artificial irrigation,cotton cultivation is not possible.It is for this reason that canal and tube well irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab are devoted to cotton cultivation.The moisture should be comparatively even throughout much of the year but retarted during the harvesting period.

3. Soil:

Cotton grows best on soils which retain moisture at their upper levels and are well drained at lower depths.Its favours alluvial soil but can do quite well on tighter soils if sufficient moisture is present to prevent excessive compaction around the plant roots.The use of natural or artificial manure is essential to maintain the fertility of soil.

4. Land:

Sea breeze is very helpful for the production of quality cotton.For this reason low lands near the sea (Sindh areas ) are considered to be ideal situations for its cultivation.

Cotton Cultivation:

Cotton is a Kharif crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the summer season.Sowing is mainly broadcast and begins in April in Sindh and in May or June in Punjab.In Sindh,picking starts from August.Whereas in Punjab it begins in September or October.Cotton mostly grows in rows and the minimum distance between row to row is kept about 11/2 feet .Similarly the minimum distance between plant to plant remain about 6".

Cotton Growing Areas:

In Pakistan cotton is grown in canal irrigated areas of Punjab and Sindh and also in some parts of Baluchistan and N.W.F.P.

1. Punjab:

The province of Punjab has a network of canals leading out from the mighty river Indus and draining the are. (0 % of the crop depends Bahawalpur,Dera Ghazi Khan,Faisalabad,Sargodha,Lahore and Gujranwala constitute the cotton belt .In these areas the well-known variety of medium staple cotton is grown.A small quantity of Desi quality cotton is allowed to be grown for domestic use.Punjab produces a surplus quantity of cotton and after meeting the local requirements the rest of it is exported.

2. Sindh:

The province of Sindh also produces a considerable amount of cotton.The canal irrigated areas of Sindh,constituting Hyderabad and Sukkur division are the main cotton centres.Here both the American medium staple and Desi qualities of cotton are grown.Sindh also produces surplus quantity of cotton which is more than the local requirements.

Average And Production

The following table shows area,production and yield per hectare of cotton during the last three years:
Period..............Area...............Production....................Yield Per Hectare
...................(000 Hectares)........(000 Tonnes).....................(kg)
1989-90.............2599..................8560.............................561
1990-91.............2662..................9628.............................616
1991-92.............2896..................12500............................734
(provisional)

Exports:(min.Rs.)

1989-90 - 9550
1990-91 - 9553
1991-92 - 5916
(July to March)

Rice (Food Crop)

Importance of Rice in Pakistan:

Rice holds an important position among the cash crops of Pakistan.It fulfills the food requirements of our country but we also earn a lot of foreign exchange from its export.Besides it is an important raw material for manufacturing starch,paper ,sandals,hats,mattresses etc.grain as well as its husk is also used as fodder for cattle.

Biological and Historical References

Rice belongs to the genus "Oxygen",two species of which are cultavated,"Oryza Glaberrima" and "Oryza Sativa".The former is found only in tropical west African while the latter is found all over the rice growing areas..The exact origin of rice is not known but most of the research workers give this credit to South East Asi.After 1468 it was introduced in Italy from where it spread to european and many other contries of the world.

Favourable Coditions For Its growth:

1. Temperature:

Rice is a tropical plant.it requires high temperature during the growing season of 4 to 6 months.The temperature should be more than 80 degree F and in no way less than 70 degree F even for the quick maturing varieties.In Pakistan rice is cutivated only one a year i.e.early summer.Its cultivation is not possible in areas of severe cold or where the temperature goes below freezing point.

2. Water

Rice is known as a plant of water.Its cultivation requires large amount of moisture.The annual rainfall should not be in any way leas than 40 ".The root of the rice plant should remain submerged in water for a long time.For 75 days the rice fields should have 6 " of slow moving water.When the rice crops mature ,less water is required and during ripening season,the field should be almost dry so that it can be harvested easily.
The rice growing areas of Pakistan have an average annual rainfall of less than 20 " .So the deficiency of rainfall has been met by the artificial arrangements of irrigation water through canals and tube wells etc.

3. Soil:

With the exemption of sandy soils which are very permeable ,rice can be grown successfully on soils ranging from silt loam to clays .Alluvial soil is the most suitable soil for the rich growth of rice.Heavy clayey sub soil with water retaining capacity gives best results.

4. Land:

The flooding of rice fields requires level land and therefore river valleys,deltas and coasted plains are suitable areas,otherwise terracing is required.

System of Cultivation

There are two methods of rice cultivation:

1.Broad Cast Sowing:

This involves direct plantation of rice plants in the fields.

2.Transplantation:

In this case sowing is first done in nursery beds.When the plants attain a height of 4 " to 6 ",they are transplanted into big fields.This method is also called the Japanese method.It is the most scientific and beneficial method.By its practice ,the per acre production increases considerably.
Rice is mostly cultivated in rows and the distance from row to row is kept about 6 " and from plant to plant remains 3 ".

Rice Growing Areas

Cultivation of rice is mainly confined to the low lying parts of the Punjab plain and the flooded rivers and canal areas of Sindh.To a small extent it is also grown in the submountain districts in the North and the canal irrigated areas.Rice cultivation in N.W.F.P .Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir areas is not more than 1 % to 2 % of their total areas.

1. Punjab:

In Punjab,the division of Lahore and Gujranwala rank at the top.Best equalities like Basmati,Parmal,Sukhdari,Irri-six etc. are grown in this part of Punjab.Besides somu rice is also cultivated in Shakhupura,Sargodha,Faisalabad,Multan and Bahawalpur divisions.

2. Sindh:

In the province of Sindh,the districts of Sukkur division are most famouse for good quality rice cultivation .Larkana district ranks at cultivated in Khairpur,Nawabshah and Hyderabad districts.The main qualities of rice which are common in the province of Sindh are Kangni,Beghi,Irri-8 etc.

Average And Production

The following table shows areas,production and yield per hectare of rice during the last three years:
Period............Area...........Production................Yield Per Hectare
................(000 Hec)........(000 Ton)...................(kg)
1989-90..........2107.............3220......................1528
1990-91..........2113.............3261......................1543
1991-92..........2007.............3198......................1593
(Provisional)

Exports:

1989-90 - Rs. 5144 million
1990-91 - Rs. 7846 million
1991-92 - Rs. 7083 million
(July-March)

WHEAT (Food Crop)

Introduction

Wheat is the most popular food crop of Pakistan.Wheat being the staple diet of most of the people of Pakistan it dominates all crops in acreage and production .We use wheat and its products in a number of ways.It accounts for over 70 % of the gross cereals and over 36 % of the country's acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation.
Wheat is being cultivated in our country from ancient times.According to some experts wheat was first cultivated in the Indus Valley.Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of wheat in Asia and stands 11th in world production.

Favourable Conditions For Its Growth

1. Temperature:

Wheat is essentially a temperate crop requiring moderate heat and moisture.In Pakistan it is a rain (winter) crop.It is cultivated in the month of October and November.The temperature then is between 50 degree and 60 degree F which is most suitable for wheat growth while it is harvested at the end of April or early in May when the temperature is between 80 degree F and 100 degree F.This high temperature helps in the ripening of the crop.

2. Water:

For wheat cultivation,rain must come during the period of growth and sunny conditions should prevail at the time of ripening.Minimum rainfall required during the growing season is 20 ".Rainfall is no way should exceed 40 ".In Pakistan the average annual rainfall is less than 20 " which is insufficient.Thus wheat is mostly grown by means of irrigation.Due to lack of irrigational facilities Baluchistan and Potwar plateau depend exclusively on rainfall.However the yield per acre of the rain fed fields is about half that of irrigated fields.

3. Soil:

Wheat is known to grow on a varioty of soils but it does best in the well-drained clayey loams having plenty of humus.Hence the dark coloured chernozems of the temperate grasslands like that of Pakistan are the most suitable soils.

Kinds of Wheat:

There are two main types of wheat:

1.Vulgare or Sharbati:

It is widely cultivated and is prized for common bread.

2.Durum:

It has local importance and is mostly used for making of Suji (Semolina) and Sewian (Vermicelli).

Wheat Producing Centres of Pakistan:

Wheat is cultivated in all the four provinces of Pakistan.Punjab and Sindh provinces however rank at the top.The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have alluvial soil brought by River Indus and its tributaries.These rivers further increase the fertility of the soil by adding a number of organic and in-organic matters brought by them from various areas of our country .The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces have insufficient rainfall.This deficiency has been made up by providing canals and other irrigational facilities.The temperate climate aids wheat production in Sindh and Punjab.

1. Punjab:

The province of Punjab ranks at the top in the production of wheat.The upper indus plain accounts for 70 % of the total wheat of our country.Canal fed fields produce 2/3 and the rest comes from the rain fed fields.The main wheat growing divisions are :
Sargodha,Faisalabad,Multan,Dera Ghazi Khan,Bahawalpur,Lahore,Sahiwal,Shaikhupura and Sialkot.

2. Sindh:

The province of Sindh ranks second in wheat production.Kabul,Kurram and Gomal rivers have a substantial share in wheat acreage.Most of the lands devoted to wheat cultivation in the lower Indus Plains are located in the irrigated districts of Nawabshah,Hyderabad,Sukkur,Tharparkar and Khairpur.

3. N.W.F.P:

The North west Frontier province does not contribute much towards wheat production.In the canal irrigated areas of N.W.F.P Mardan,Peshawar and Bannu are famouse for wheat cultivation.

Baluchistan:

Some wheat is also grown in the plateau areas and the valleys of the hilly regions of Baluchistan.On the Potwar Plateau there are large areas under wheat which depend entirely on rainfall.

Average And Production

The following table shows area,production and yield per hectare of wheat during the last three years:
Period.....................Area..................Production...................Yield per Hectare
.........................(000 Hec).................(000 Ton).........................(kg)
1989-90.....................7845.....................14316............................1825
1990-91.....................7911.....................14565............................1841
1991-92.....................7795.....................14657............................1880
(provisional)

Imports:

Period...................Quantity...................Unit Value
............................(000 ml?)...................Rs/ml?)
1989-90......................2047........................4197
1990-91......................972.........................3208
1991-92......................1000........................4057

Forest Resources and Their Exploitation

Introduction

At the time of the establishment of Pakistan about 50 lakh acres area was covered with natural or artificial forests.It was about 2.6 % of the total area,which was insufficient for the country's needs,because according to experts the area under the forests in a country should not be less than 20 to 25 % for a well balanced economy.In Pakistan only 4.5 % of the total area is under forests.
The Government has taken various steps to increase the areas under forests.Large areas have been reserved for afforrestation in Thal,Ghulam Mohammad Barrage and Gudu Barrage and it is likely to improve the future acreage of forrests to some extent.Besides this the forests department celebrates weeks for tree plantation in the months of spring and rainy seasons.During these works people are encouraged to plant more and more trees.

Kinds of Forests in Pakistan

1.Evergreen Coniferous Forests:

Areas:

These forests are found in the Northern and Western hills such as Chitral,Swat,Dir,Abbotabad,Malakand,Kohistan,Mansehra district of N.W.F.P and Rawalpindi district of Punjab are the main areas covered with coniferous forests.

Characteristics:

These forests remain evergreen throughout the year i.e.they do not shed their leaves at a time .The leaves of the trees are mostly of conical shape .In these areas these forests are found upto about 3000 ft.In Baluchistan,these forests are found at the height of 5000 ft.

Important Trees:

Deodar,Kall,Spruce,Chir,Fir are important trees of these forests.In Baluchistan,two more important ,pencil juniper and chilgoza are also found.

Economic Importance:

The trees grown in these forests are of immense help to many industries.Deodar is the main source of limer and is used for building houses and railway sleepers.Fir is used to the making of hardboard.Chir is used in the match,rayon, and resin industry.

2.Baluchistan Hill Forests:

Areas:

These forests are found in area of Quetta and Kalat divisions.

Characteristics:

Due to poor rainfall,these forests are not dense .They are found in altitudes of 5000 to 10000 feet.

Important Trees:

The main trees of these areas include chilgoza,pines,pencil,junipers and chestnuts.

3.deciduous Forests:

Areas:

These forests are found in the districts of Gujrat,Jhelum,Rawalpindi,Hazara,Mardan,Peshawar,Kohat and in some patches of the Baluchistan plateau.

Characteristics:

These forests cover land rising upto an altitude of 3000 feet.The trees of these forests shed their leaves at a time when the amount of rainfall and temperature is insufficient in a particular season
Important Trees:
The dominant trees of these forests are Phulai,Kao,Chestnut,Juniper,Walnut,Oak,Maple and Poplar.Olea and Chir occur occasionally at high elevations.
Economic Importance:
These forests are an important source of timber for the manufacture of furniture ,rifle butts,sports goods etc.

4.Riverian Or Bela Forests:
Areas:
Narrow belts along the banks of River Indus and its large tributaries are occupied by the riverion forests commonly known as Bela Forests.
Characteristics:
These forests are found near the banks of rivers where underground water is available in the flooded areas.They cover the active flood plains which are inundated almost annually.They are usually not very dense.
Important Trees:
Babul,Shisham and Willow are the main varieties found in these forests.
Economic Importance:
The Shisham wood is mostly used for making high quality furniture.The wood of Babul provides firewood and is used for making agricultural implements.The Bark of Babul is used for tanning purposes.

5.Artificial Forests:
Areas:
In some areas of Punjab and Sindh,a few irrigated plantation units have been established .Changa Manga forest situated about 40 miles from Lahore is the largest of the irrigation forest plantation.Besides this Chichawatni in Sahiwal,Multan,Thal and in some parts of Ghulam Mohammad and Guddu barrages,artificial forests are being maitained.
Important Trees:
In these forests,harwood species such as Shisham,Mulberry and Acasia trees are grown for commercial purposes.

6.Tidal Or Mangrove Forests:
Areas:
These forests are mostly found in the Indus delta.Hub delta is also covered with these forests which extend to Runn of Kuch covering an area of about 750,000 acres.
Characteristics:
The trees of these forests grow in awampy areas.Lack of fresh water results in shunned growt of trees and in the occurance of limited number of species .The normal height of trees is 10 feet while in better watered areas the trees rise to 20-25 feet.
Important Trees:
Some valuable species are being experimented upon in these areas.Avicennta Officanilis,Ceriopa and Rhizo phoras are some of them.
Economic Importance:
A vital advantage of these forests in that they supply a large amount of firewood.The trees have mostly soft wood which is also used as fodder for animals.

7.The Rakhs:
Areas:
These forests are found in the Indus valley scaltered far away from human settlements.
Characteristics:
These are mostly shrub forests and the trees are not very tall.
Important Trees:
The main species which are generally found in these forests are Jand,Neem,Karil,Farash and Bakain.
Economic Importance:
The wood of those trees is mostly used for fuel purposes or in the making of cheap furniture.

Importance and Uses of Forests
According to an agricultural export "A country can live without gold and silver,but not without forests,"The following is the importance of forests for us:
1.As there is a shortage pf power resources,the coal and oil found in our country is insufficient to meet our requirements.So a large population of our country living in rural areas uses wood as fuel and for other domestic purposes.
2.Besides timber ,wood is being used as fuel.The wood for making furniture and building material is also obtained from forests.
3.Forests supply the raw material and wood for various industries of our country,such as matches,paper,sports goods,resins,rayon,etc.
4.Forests keep the climate of the adjacent areas pleasant by getting the moisture through its roots from interior of the earth and spreading it through their branches and leaves.
5.The forests areas of our country serve as pasture,but for the cattle of farmers living near them,camels,sheep and goats get their food from them.
6.In mountainous areas forests help to preserve our agricultural land from the dangers of erosion.In plain areas forest or trees save the banks of canals and rivers from erosion.
7.The most important thing is that the forests provide oxygen gas for us and consume filthy carbon dioxide.
8.A large number of fruits that we use are provided from trees,or forests.
9.In forests a large number of animals take refuge,so forests provide hunting facilities for hunters and they get meat and skins from them.
10.Forests help the farmers in saving their crops from strong dual storms.

Minerals

Introduction

It has been rightly said that world commerce of today would be impossible without minerals.Mining,being a basic industry provides a firm base from the growth in various sectors of the economy.Minerals are the backbone of modern industry.The heavy machines and transporting vehicles are all built and run by minerals.
Pakistan is rich in minerals resources,but these immense potentials remained unexploited over the years.Now the Government is adopting new policy measures to give a boost to this sector.In order to encourage mineral exploration in the country,a mineral co-ordination board (MCB) was established in 1979 to co-ordinate public sector agencies and the private sector.
Pakistan has considerable deposits of non metallic mineals,including rock-salt,gypsum,china clay,limestone and marble.Metallic minerals found in some quantity are chromite antimony,copper and iron etc.

1. Iron Ore

Usage:

Iron tops the list of capital goods and plays a vital role in the economic development of a country.The entire economic activities of a country revolve around this basic material.Today,iron touches man's life from the cradle to grave.Indeed man today is almost entirely dependant on iron for his civilized existence.

Occurrence:

Iron ore deposits occur at many localities .The more important are discussed below:

KalaBagh Iron Ore:

Occurs near Kalabagh in the Surghar Range and near Sakesar in the Salt Range.They are the largest deposits in Pakistan but the ore is of low grade (30.35 percent iron) and of irregular composition.Reseves are estimated at about 300 million tonnes.

Dommel Misar:

Magnitite deposits in Southern Chitral,about 30 kilometers south of Drosh ,have an iron content of 55.65 percent.Reserves are estimated at 3 million tonnes.

Langrial,Galdanian And Abbotabad Ore:

Langrial iron deposits are in the vicinity of Langrial village in haripur tehsil,about 30 kilometers south of Abbotabad.The iron content varies widely between 0 and 50 percent .The Galdanian deposits,about 15 kilometers north-east of abotabad have an average iron content of 20 percent.Iron content yardes from 14.46 percent.Total reserves in Hazara Distric are estimated to be mere than 100 million tonnes.

Chighazi Magnitite Deposits:

Of various magnitudes have been discovered in Chigai District,near Dalbandin .Reserves of high grade ore (56 percent iron or more ) are estimated over 3 million tonnes and of low ore (25.38 percent iron) at 20 million tonnes.

2. Chromite

Usage:

Chromium is used in the making of stainless steel ,high speed tools and precision instruments,dyes and in photography.

Occurrence:

Pakistan leads the world in chromite production.Large deposits of chromite occur in the Muslimbagh area of the Zaob valley.Those are the best known of the chromite deposits in Pakistan and have been extensively exploited .Khanozai and Jang Torgarh are important mines .Other deposits are in Chagai and Kharan,where the total deposits amount to 10.000 tonnes.
In addition to the above Peshawar division deposits amount to 14,000 tonnes.

3. Copper

Usage:

Copper ranks next to iron in importance because of its many industrial uses.It was used for making coins and domestic utensils in the past.Now a days it is used in the manufacture of electric goods,telephone wires,refrigerators etc.

Occurrence:

The deposits of copper have been found at Sandak and Amuri in Chaghai districts of Baluchistan.Sandak deposits are estimated to be 412 million tonnes.At present copper is not being extracted commercially in our country but it is hoped that in near future we shall be able to produce copper in sufficient quantity with foreign collaboration.

4. Rock Salt and Brine

All the rock salt deposits in Pakistan occur in the salt range.The most important mines are:

(a) Khewra Mines:

Khewra is the most extensively worked area with seams attaining thickness of as much as 18 metres.Present production is 220,000 tonnes a year.

(b) Karcha Mines:

The mine has five seams,with a maximum thickness of 15 metres and produces 40.000-45,000 tonnes a year.

(c) Kalabagh Mines:

The seams are irregular and contorted and production is about 12,000-16,000 tonnes a year.

(d) Jatta,Bahadurkhel and Karak Salt Deposits:

Production from this area almost equals that of the Warcha mines.The reserves,however,are thought to be very large.
Salt is also obtained from brine and salt.Lakes,but the amount obtained from these sources is relatively small compared with that of rock salt.Salt is harvested in the Tharparkar area of Sindh and obtained by evaprating sea-water at Mauripur,near Karachi,and along the Makran and Lasbela coasts large deposits of concentrated brine have been discovered at Dharyala near Khewra.Various chemicals and fertilizers may be manufactured from this brine.

5. Gypsum

Usage:

Gypsum is also an important mineral of our country .It is used for the manufacturing of cement,plaster of paris, fertilizers and in various other industries.It is also used to regain the fertility of soil in water-logged and salinity areas.

Occurrence:

Gypsum is in our country is found in a large quantity.Mianwali,Jhelum,Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab,Quetta and Sibi in Baluchistan,Kohat in N.W.F.P are the main producers,but some quantity of Gypsum is also found in Bahawalpur (punjab) ,Dadu and Sanghar districts (in Sindh) ,Dera Ismail Khan in (N.W.F.P)
The total reserves of Gypsum found in our country are estimated at about 350 million tonnes.

6. Limestone

Usage:

Limestone is the chief raw material of lime ,cement,bleaching powder,glass,soap,paper,paints,steel etc.

Occurrence:

Limestone deposits constilute a large part of the sedimentary rocks of Pakistan.Although limestone is wide spread,some areas have more concentrated deposits.These includes:
1.In N.W.F.P: Kohat,Nowshera,Pezu and Mughal Kot.
2.In Baluchistan: Loralal and Harnal.
3.In Punjab: Salt Range,Zinda pir,Margalla Hills.
4.In Sindh: Mango Pir,Marli Hills,Cape Monze,Rani Pir.
Total annual production is about 3.5 million tonnes.

7. Marble

Usage:

It is mainly used as a building and decorative stone.

Occurrence:

Pakistan exports marble manufactured items to a large number of countries around the world.In various parts of our country good quality marble in a wide range of colours is found.

(a)Peshawar Division Deposits:

Good quality marble of white and various other colours in found at two places:
a) Shahidmena area and
b) Kumbela Knwar area.

(b) Mardan District Deposits:

Best known deposits of marble,usually white and of uniform texture is found at two places :
a) Gundari Tarko and
b) Maneri.

(c) Nowshera Area Deposits:

Pink coloured marble of low quality is found.Total reseves amount to 3.8 million cubic ft.

(d) Quetta Area deposits:

Large deposits of green,yellow and white marble are found total reserves amount to 1,80,000 tonnes.

Power Resources

Introduction
Energy is the essential need of the present age.Pakistan is selfsuffitient to the extent of about 67% of its energy supply.The rest is being met through imports,mainly of crude petroleum and deficit petroleum products.The following are the main power resources of our country:
1.Coal
2.Petroleum of Mineral Oil
3.Natural Gas
4.Hydro-Electric Power
About 42 % of energy in Pakistan is obtained from oil,35% from Natural gas,12% from hydle power and 4% from coal.
(A) COAL
Usage:
Coal is described as the mother of modern Industry.It is at the back of the rapid Industrial development of the great industrial powers which might not have been possible without its presence.
Coal is unique among natural products in the number of uses to which it can be put.The main function of coal is to run the factories ,the locomotives and the steam ships.Supplying heat for domestic purposes is of secondary importance.Apart from these,coal tar,dyes,perfumes,colour films,sewing thread and typewriter ribbons are some of the 200,000 by products derived from coal.
Occurrence
Coal Mines of the Punjab:
1.Salt Range Mines:
The coal found in these areas is of low quality.The main centres of coal in this area are Dandot and Pidh.Besides,some coal is also mined at Ara Katha,Chilaj,Pir Jahania etc.Reserves are estimated at 70 million tonnes.
2.Makarwal Coal Mines:
These are second important coal mines of Baluchistan .The coal found here is of poor quality and reserves are small .
3.Degari Coal Mines:
The coal found here is of low quality,having more ash and sulphur content.Reserves are estimated at 54 million tonnes.
Besides the above mentioned coal mines .Some coal has also been discovered in other areas of Baluchistan such as Pir Ismail,Ziarat,Sinjidi and Kach,but extraction of coal has not been started from those places.
Coal Mines Of Sindh:
1.Lakhara Coal Mines:
The coal found here is of inferior quality lignite and has a high moisture content.Reserves are about 22 million tonnes.
2.Meting Jhimpir Coal Mines:
The seams of coal are thin and are of poor quality.Reserves are about 28 million tonnes.
Besides coal has been discovered in other areas of Pakistan such as Cherat hills.Nowshera in N.W.F.P and at Kotli,Kuiratta,Dandili and Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir ,but due to inferior quality and small quantity,mining is uneconomical.
Total Reserves:
Coal has been the traditional source of energy and its resources are estimated to the tune of 17.77 billion tonnes.

(B) MINERAL OIL OR PETROLEUM
Usage:
The use of petroleum as a power resource is indispensable.Today,it illuminates the houses and runs ships,locomotives and factories.It is of great significance for automobiles and aeroplanes.As a source of lubricant petroleum has no rival.
It provides a number of by-products e.g.gasoline,petrol,diesel oil,kerosene oil,furnace oil,road oil,wax,naphtha,benzine etc.It remaining dust is used in the cement industries.It is also an important raw material for many chemical textile and pharmaceutical industries.
Occurrence:
Punjab
1.Dhurnal oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
2.Meyal Oil Field (Dist.Attock,Punjab)
3.Toot Oil Field(Dist.Attock ,Punjab)
4.Chak Naurange Oil Field (Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
5.Joya Mir Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
6.Dhulian Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
7.Khur Oil Field(Dist.Attock,Punjab)
8.Balkasar Oil Field (Dist.Chacwal,Punjab)
9.Karsal Oil Field(Dist.Chakwal,Punjab)
10.Adhi Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab)
11.Bhangli Oil Field(Dist.Rawalpindi,Punjab)
Sindh
1.Laghari Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
2.Tando Alam (Dist.Hyderabad,Sindh)
3.Thora Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
4.Dhsbi Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
5.Khashkheli Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Sindh)
6.Mazari Oil Field(Dist.Badin,Punjab)
7.South MAzari (DIst.Badin,Sindh)
8.Sono Ghotana Central Lashari
Besides the above in Sindh province at Gularchi Bobi Pasakhi,Tajedi Nari,Turk,Hali Pota,Ghunghro,Panero,Kunner,Oil has also been discovered and experimental processes and under progress.
Oil Refining:
At present,Three refineries are operating in the country.Of these ,Pakistan Refinery Limited (PRL) and National Refinery Limited (NRL) are located at Karachi and Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) at Rawalpindi.PRL and NRL have refining capacity of 1.8 million tonnes per year.In addition to imported crude oil,NRL is also processing indigenous crude from new find at Legari-Khashkheli.
Total Reserves And Production:
The recoverable reserves of crude oil were estimated at 145.69 million barrels on March 31,1992.
The production of oil increased from 53,481 barrels per day in 1989-90 to 64,348 barrels per day in 1990-91.However,during the period July-March ,1992 the production declined on an average to 62,500 barrels per day.

(C) NATURAL GAS
Usage:
Natural Gas is an important means of energy,especially for countries like Pakistan which are deficient in the production of mineral oil and coal.
Occurrence:
The country is well endowed with natural gas.Following are some of the important gas fields:
(a) Natural Gas Deposits At Sui:
It is the biggest deposit of natural gas in our country.It is situated in Sibbi district of Baluchistan.This gas field is considered as one of the biggest gas fields of the world and gas is being supplied to different parts of our country from this field through pipe lines.
(b) Dhullian Gas Field:
Mineral oil has been discovered at this place in 1937,so Attock Oil Company ,while searching for more oil,found natural gas at this field in 1994.
(c) Meyal Gas Field(Dist.Attock ,Punjab):
Pakistan Oil Field Ltd.Company discovered both oil and gas at this place in 1968.Gas is being supplied through a pipe line for the industrial areas around Rawalpindi.
(d) Mari-Sari -Hundi:
Mari-Sari-Hundi are also the gas fields from which gas is being supplied for various other purposes and also to three fertilizer factories.
(e) Toot Gas Field (Dist.Attock,Punjab):
Natural gas has also been found at toot and it is being used since 1980.
Recently gas has been discovered at Dhabi South Sonoro,Bukhari,Matil and Jabo in Sindh and at Makhdompur in Punjab.
Total Reserved And Production:
The recoverable reserves of natural gas are estimated at 542.505 billion cubic meres.During the first nine months of 1991-92 the production was 11543.19 million cubic mores as against 10932.92 million cubic meres during the same period in the previous year showing an increase 5.58% .The country produces about 1.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day.
(D) HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER
The hydro-electric potential of Pakistan,substantial part of which has now been harnessed, is mostly located in the hilly north-western areas,where the different lated terrain provides natural sites for dams.Some sites in the plains have also been developed by utilizing fall in rivers and canals.While the use of the three eastern rivers has,as a result of the Indus Water Treaty,passed to India,the hydro-electric potential of the three western rivers,the Indus,the Jhelum and the Chenab has been estimated at 30 million Kw.Following are the main hydro projects of our country:
1.The Tarbela Power Station:
When it comes into full operation it will have the largest capacity and generation.The installed capacity of our units presently in operation 700 MW,and generation 4,129 MKWHS.
2.The Mangla Power Station:
This power station will ultimetly have an installed capacity of 1,000 million watts in ten sets of 100,000 KW each.The first three generating sets,each of 100,000 KW,were installed as part of the Indus Basin Plan and the other four have been added later by WAPDA.
3.The Warsak Power Station:
It has six units with a total capacity of 240 MW.The turbines are fed by a concrete lined tunnel from the 46 metre high dam.This station was one of the major sources of hydro-electric power before the completion of Mangla and Tarbela.
4.The Malakand And Dargai Power Stations:
They produced electricity from falls in the upper Swat Canal.Water is taken back into the canal from the Malakand station to feed the power house at Dargai.Malakand station was completed in 1938 ,with an installed capacity of 16,700 KW, and this was to 80,000 KW in 1952.Dargai also has an installed capacity of 80,000 KW.
5.The Rasul Project:
This project was started in 1946,with the limited purpose of feeding 1860 tube -wells in Gujrat and Sargodha.The scheme was later modified to meet the requirements of the Punjab,before the completion of Warsak power station.The water in the 3-km power channel is taken from the Upper Jhelum Canal,and after passing through the turbine,joines the Lower Jhelum Canal.
6.The Chichoki Mallian Power Station:
This station is located on the upper Chenab Canal about 48 km from Lahore,and in the event of a power failure on the main grid,can be isolated to supply the city.
7.The Shadiwal Power Station:
is located on the upper Jhelum Canal near Gujrat.
8.The Nandipur Power Station:
It is located on the upper chenab canal,about 7 miles north-west of Gujrat.
9.The Kurram and Garhi Station:
These stations are on the irrigation canal taken out from the kurram River .About 40,000 KW of electricity is being produced from this project which is providing the needs of Kohat and Dera Ismail Khan divisions.
Energy Generation:(million Kwh)
1989-90 - 16925
1990-91 - 18298
1991-92 - 13724
(July to March)

Future Hydro Plans of WAPDA:

Detailed engineering of the Kalabagh Dam Project is in progress. The Kalabagh Hydle Power Station will be built about 12 miles upward from Kalabagh city on River Indus;It will have a capacity of about 1800 MW.Stage-I of 880 MW is planned to be completed in 1993 and stage-II in 1996.A reservoir at Thal has been planned to firm Tarbela Power by about 200 MW in the low-water months.Besides,hydro potential estimated at 60 MW available on the Chashma-jhelum link Canal is also planned for exploitation.

Industries

INTRODUCTION

The Industrial base of Pakistan Pakistn at the time of Independence was very weak. Not more than 35 important industries fell to Pakistan's share.To restrict dependance on Indian industrial centres,it became essential to set up basic industries.To overcome this handicap the government encouraged the establishment of new industries based on local raw material which was sufficiently available.
In 1949-50 manufactured items accounted for only 1.5% of the national income.After 10 years the ratio improved to 5 %.In 70-71 the ratio increased upto 16.31% .In 78-79 the ratio declined to 14.35%. Today the large soule industries have 19.9% share in our GNP.Pakistan has attained a fairly diversified base in manufacturing ranging from essential consumer goods to heavy engineering,chemicals and tools industry.Inspite of this enormous progress,we cannot still claim to be an industrially developed country.Our economy still depends upon the agricultural sector and import of various industrial products from other countries.

LOCALIZATION FACTORS

There are some important geographical and economic factors which exercise a great influence on the Localization of any industry.The factors are called the localization factors and are as follows:

1.Raw Materials:

No Industry can be established without availability of raw materials.They should be easily accessible otherwise the expenses incurred on their acquisition become immense .The modern means of transportation have made possible to tap distant sources of raw material.

2.Power Resources:

An industry can not run without the supply of energy and power.Modern complex industries consume large amount of power.Fuel must be easily available at the selected site.Water power,thermal power ,natural gas,mineral oil and small quantity of coal (due to low production) is used as power in Pakistani industries.

3.Proximity to The Market:

The ultimate purpose of all production is consumption.The consuming market should not be remote from the industries,otherwise the delivery of the manufactured items will add immensely to the cost.However modern means of transportation have opened the world market and decreased dependance on the local market.

4.Labour:

Labour of its three types:
1)Skilled
2)Unskilled and
3)Management and labour staff.
Abundant and cheap supply of all kinds of labour should be available at the site of the industry.Unfortunately we are not self sufficient in the supply of skilled labour which is a great handicap for our local industries.We have to import skilled labour which adds to our cost.

5.Suitable Climate:

Climate determines the working power and efficiency of labourers and also the economy of the products.Different kinds of industries require different kinds of climate. Generally speaking, temperate climate is most suitable as it stimulates people to work harder.

6.Easy Availability of Capital:

It is an accepted fact that modern industrialization is impossible without the large supply of capital.Easy and large supply of capital is an important factor for the localization of any industry.I.D.B.P,N.D.F.C ,PIDC,PICIC AND ICP are institutions in our country which are playing an indispensable role in the industrial development of our country by providing financial help to our industries.

7.Government Encouragement:

Encouragement and incentive from the side of the government is an important localisation factor for any industry.

8.Means of Transportation:

In these days of specialized and diverse trading operations,availability of means of transport (may it be by air,sea or land)is indispensable.These means should be easily and quickly available and should also be cheap to minimize cost of production.

9.Political Conditions:

Areas at a safe distance from politically explosive regions and enemy territories are preferred for industrial location.

(A) COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Importance:

Cotton textile industry is the biggest industry of Pakistan.Pakistan forms the base of world Cotton textile industry.It is a broad industry and involves spinning i.e.yarn production and weaving i.e.cotton production.
The making of textiles employs over 200,000 persons in Pakistan which is more than 1/3rd of all those employed in large scale industries.It also makes the largest contribution to the GNP.Apart from its basic contribution of fulfilling the need at home,we earn a large amount of foreign exchange from the export of cotton yarn and cloth.

Review of Progress:

The country had 18 cotton mills in 1948 with 1.77 lac spindles and 4,824 looms.The total production of yarn was 3 crore pounds and that of cloth amounted to 9 crore yds.Their production was altogether inadequate for the country's requirements and a large quantity of cloth and yarn had to be imported. Resources were available for its development.The government gave priority this industry made the greatest progress.In 1964-65 the number of factories was more than 120.As regards to production of yarn,It increased to 14.5 yds.in 1967-68.
After 1974,this industry faced a severe recession due to both to domestic and international factors.Pakistan had suffered particularly,because this industry is export oriented.Both production and exports of its products had drastically fallen during these years.The major causes of the crises of the cotton textile industry had been :
1) Tall in demand for the products of this industry in the international market in the face of glut in production in several countries.
2) Domestically there were several unfavourable developments;such as rise in price of cotton due to fall in cotton production,and increase in wages of labour along with the reported fall in its productivity.Today we have 200 cotton textile mills in recognized sector.

Cotton Textile Centres:

Karachi,The Biggest Textile Centre:

After the establishment of Pakistan,the first mill named as Valika Cotton Textile Mill was established at Karachi in 1948.Although ,Karachi is not located in cotton growing area.Yet it soon became and is still,the biggest centre of cotton textile industry in Pakistan.Many factors were responsible.It had the advantage of availability of capital ,banking facilities,bussiness ability of families which migrated to Karachi,fine labour,railway and road links with cotton growing areas,humid climate,easy availability of sui gas etc.
In addition to Karachi ,now in every big city of all the four provinces,cotton textile mills have been set up.These are as follows:

1.Sindh:

Karachi,Hyderabad,Tando Adam,Tando Jam,Khairpur,Larkana,Tando Mohammed Khan,Kotri etc.

2.Punjab:

Faisalabad,Lahore,Multan,Rawalpindi,Sheikhupura,Jhelum,D.G.K,Sargodha,Okara,Rahimyar Khan,Harappa.

3.Baluchistan:

Quetta,Lasbela,Anthar.

4.N.W.F.P:

Peshawar,Nowshehra,D.I.K,Kohat,Bannu,Haripur,Hazara,Charsadda.

Installed Capacity

Installed Capacity of Textile Industry ( in thousands)

Year................Spindles Installed......Spindles Working.....Looms Installed.....Looms Working
1989-90.................5195....................4416...................16...................8
1990-91.................5569....................4827...................15...................8
1991-92.................6141....................6465...................15...................8
(July-March)

Production:

(a) Production of Cotton Yarn(thousand Kg.):

Year- Production
1989-90 - 911,588
1990-91 - 1,041,248
1991-92 - 861,819

(b) Production of Cotton Cloth (thousand Sq.Metre):

Year- Production

1989-90 - 294,839
1990-91 - 292,911
1991-92 - 233,997
(July-March)

Position of Trade:

The country is now self-sufficient in varieties of cotton cloth and cotton yarn.We are now excited from the list of importers in this connection.The major export markets of Pakistani cotton fabrics are EEC,U.S.A,U.S.S.R,Australia,Iran,Canada and Saudi Arabia.

Exports(July-March):

.....................Quantity(MT) ..............................Value (Million $)
.....................1990-91...1991-92 .....................1990-91.....1991-92
Cotton Yarn....346615.....332100......................810.73......786.53
Cotton Fabrics...782.......860........................486.92......587.65

(B) IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

Introduction:

In the first phase of Industralization in Pakistan,the emphasis was on the development of consumer goods industry.It was soon felt that the establishment of basic industries like Iron and Steel were essential for the economic development of the country.A vigorous search for iron ore and other minerals was started.
At present ,Pakistan heavy engineering industry comprises of the following units:

1.Heavy Mechanical Complex-Taxila:

HMC Taxila is one of the most important industries of the 3rd five year plan of Pakistan in the overall scheme of establishing basic and key industries in the country.
It was completed in 1970 with the technical and economic assistance of the people's Republic of China involving a total cost of Rs.240 million.Its annual production capacity is 17,000 tonnes of various types of complete machines and plants which include sugar and cement plants,chemical and petro chemical plants,road bulldozers,railway wagons,axles of wagons,overhead traveling cranes and boilers.At present 12 cement plants and 19 sugar plants produced by the complex have been installed.A cement plan has been exported to Bangladesh and 3 sugar plants to Indonesia and Bangladesh.Export orders which are under process have also been received from Bangladesh,Syria,Iran,Kenya and Azerbaijan.

2.heavy Foundry and Forge Project-Taxila:

This project was set up with the technical and financial assistance of the people's Republic of China in 1972 and is one of the biggest project of this kind in Pakistan. It is planned to provide a metallurgical base to the heavy engineering sector.The project,when in full production,will be able to fully meet the requirements of heavy castings and forgings of the engineering units of Pakistan.

3.Pakistan Machine tool Factory-Landhi:

This factory was established in collaboration with a.swiss firm at Landhi in Karachi.It is a highly sophisticated engineering facility which is producing transmission components and automobile parts since 1968.Its major products are gear boxes,audaxles for trucks,jeeps,tractors etc.

4.Pakistan Steel Mill (Karachi):

The foundation stone of Karachi Steel Mill was laid down on December.30, 1973.It was completed at a cost of Rs.2,55,500 million with the economic and technical assitance of U.S.S.R.
This biggest industrial enterprise in the country is the precursor of countless economic benefits.The completion of the steel mill is a shining milestone which leads the way to a new era of progress in the nation's economy.

Employment:

The employment level at Pakistan Steel was 23,842 as on March 31,1992 compared with 23,965 on December 31,1991.

Installed Capacity:

Pakistan Steel is a huge engineering complex and is producing coke,pig iron,billets,hot rolled sheets/plates,cold rolled sheets/plates,galvanised sheets etc.It has a production capacity equivalent to 1.1 million tonnes of raw steel per anum with a built in potential to expand to over 3 million tonnes.
The average capacity utilization in terms of raw steel was 76% during 1991-92.

Production Performance(000 tonnes):

Items............................1990-91......................1991-92(July-March)
Coke..................................712................................660
Pig Iron..............................1013...............................766
Rolled Billets.........................252...............................176
Cast Billets............................81................................48
Hot Rolled Coils........................386...............................296
Cold Rolled Coils.......................111................................99
Galvanized Coils.........................42................................35
Formed Sections..........................1.................................---

Sales Turnover:

The sales turnover of Pakistan steel increased from Rs.6500 million during July-March 1990-91 to Rs.6669 million during July-March 1991-92 as compared with Rs.32 million in July-March,1990-91.

(C) CEMENT INDUSTRY

Introduction:

Cement is one of the vital resources needed by a developing country .The cement industry is one of the heavy industries of Pakistan.This industry has recorded satisfactory progress in the past because specific raw material of this industry i.e.gypsum,limestone and a particular soil is quite abundant in Pakistan.That is why Pakistan can not only become self-sufficient in cement productio,but can also become an exporter of cement.However,in view of the large amount of capital required in this industry,Pakistan has so far been producing cement to meet the domestic requirements only.The groeth of this industry is well reflected in the establishment of a number of new cement projects in the country.

Review of growth:

Position at the time of Establishment:

The cement industry is the only industry which was luherited by Pakistan because at the time of independence there were 4 cement factories in the country:
1.Dalmian Cement Factory-Karachi. 160,000 tonnes
2.Dalmian Cement Factory-Dandot. 500,000 tonnes
3.Associated Ltd.Cement Factory-Wah. 90,000 tonnes
4.Associated Ltd. Cement Factory-Rohri. 180,000 tonnes
Total production capacity of all the 4 factories = 4,80,000 tonnes.

First Phase of Development:

The investment in the cement industry of Pakistan was initiated by the PIDC with the setting up of 2 cement plants of which 1 was set up at Daud Khel.Its name was Maple Leaf cement plant,with the annual production capacity of 300,00 tonnes.The 2nd,Zeal Pak cement plant was set up at Hyderabad in 1965 which was later expanded in 3 stages and now has an installed capacity of 108,000 tonnes.

The Second Phase of Development:

The second phase of development of cement industries started during the sixties with the setting up of 3 cement factories in the private sector.
The demand for cement had been steadily increasing which induced the private investors to further invest in this industry .Consequently,the annual production capacity of cement which was 10,00,000 tonnes in 1959-60 increased to 2.7 million tonnes in 1969-70 ,registering an increase of 165% during a period of 10 years.

Impact of Nationalization in 1972:

In 1972,the units of cement industries were also nationalized along with other industrial units consequently,the production of cement was limited between 2.7 million tonnes to 3.1 million tonnes.All cement industries were given under the control of a corporation named "Pak State Cement Corporation".As a result cement had to be imported to meet the domestic demand.

Performance upto the End of the 6th Plan:

In 1978,the government undertook various development projects for the reactivation of the private sector such as the completion of steel mills,port qasim,construction of new dams,railway lines,expansion of highways,development of the under developed regions.Those projects caused unprecedented increase in the domestic demand for cement in the country and we had to depend on large scale import of cement to meet this increased demand.Consequently ,in 1981-82,900,000 tonnes of cement was imported,while in 1982-83,6,20,000 tonnes was imported.
In view of the steadily increasing demand for cement ,the private sector was induced to invest in this industry.In addition to that ,the production capacity of cement units in the public sector was also expanded during the 5th and 6th five Year Plans.Consequently ,by the end of the 6th plan,the total production of cement increased from 3.40 million tonnes in 1977-78,to 6.7 million tonnes in 1986-87.

Installed Capacity:

At present 23 cement units are operating in the country with a capacity of 8135 thousand tonnes .Out of these,12 units with a capacity of 5169 thousand tonnes are in the public sector and 11 units with a capacity of 2966 thousand tonnes are in the private sector.

Production(000 tones):

1989-90- 7488
1990-91 - 7762
1991-92 - 8095
(July-March) Provisional

Exports(Rs.million):

1989-90- 31
1990-91 - 159
1991-92 - 42

(D)PAPER INDUSTRY

Introduction:

Paper was first invented in 100 A.D.in china.Before the existence of Pakistan there was no paper industry in our country.All the paper requirements were imported from abroad.Domestic raw materials like bamboos,rice and wheat straws,jute stalks etc.Were lying un-utilized and in abundance in the eastern wing.Two big paper mills were established in East Pakistan which not only made Pakistan self sufficient in writing,printing and wrapping papers but also placed it in a position to export.There were only a few paper mills in the western wing.After 1971,the supply of paper from Bangladesh stopped and we had to depend on imported paper.However with the passage of time,many paper mills were set up in Pakistan.

Important Paper Mills:

At present,following are the paper mills in our country:

1.Adamjee Paper Mills (Nowshera)N.W.F.P:

There is a hard board industry at Nowshera (N.W.F.P).Its producing capacity is 5000 tonnes of hardboard which is mostly needed for packing purposes.The waste of sugarcane (bagasse) is used as raw material which comes from sugar industry ,Mardan.

2.Charsada Paper Mills (Charsada,Mardan)N.W.F.P:

Wood pulp is used as raw material.

3.Gharoo Paper Mills (Gharoo)Sindh:

It uses waste of rice as raw material.

4.Packages Industry (Lahore)Punjab:

Uses wood pulp as raw material.

5.Rahwali Paper Mills(Gujranwala)Punjab:

It produces hardboard and brown paper.

6.Hyderabad Plant Paper(Sindh):

A plant of paper has been recently completed at Hyderabad to meet the newspaper requirements which uses the waste of rice as raw material.

Imports of Paper and Paper Board:

During July-March 1990-91,the value of paper and paper board imported stood at dollar 99.85 million.During the same period in 1991-92 the value of imports stood at dollar 111.88 million.

(E) CIGARETTES INDUSTRY

A large amount of tobacco is being cultivated in various parts of our country and we produce enough amount of tobacco every year.In the beginning there was no factory for the manufacturing of tobacco products and we had to export most of our tobacco in raw shape and had to import tobacco products from other countries.
Thus the government allowed to set up a number of factors for the manufacturing of tobacco products,so we saved a large amount or foreign exchange.Today we have not only become self sufficient in our tobacco to other countries.
There are 25 cigarettes manufacturing units situated at Jhelum Multan,Lahore(Punjab),Karachi (Landhi,Maripur,Sukkar,(Sindh),Nowshera(N.W.F.P)

Production(Million Nos.):

1989-90- 32279
1990-91 - 29887
1991-92 - 22575
(July-March)

Means of Transport

Introduction:

Transport and communication systems are vital to the economic health of a country,and the density of the transport network is an index of economic development.As the economy becomes more complex and interlinked,adjustments and improvements must be made in the means of transport and communication.Pakistan,is a relatively large country of diverse topography.Development of Transportation network in the plain areas is comparatively easy and economically rewarding.The reverse is true of the mountainous areas and this fact is reflected in the present in the present distributional pattern of means of transport and communications.The density of the transportation pattern is very low in the Northern and North-Western hilly areas and in the Baluchistan Plateau.Vast tracts of land are either totally devoid of any modern facilities or very inadequately served.The following means of transportation are available in our country:(i) Inland transportation(roads and railways) .(ii) Waterways (river and ocean transportation and (iii) Air transportation.

1. Inland Transportation

(A) ROAD TRANSPORTATION

Importance:

Road transport plays a vital roll in the economic development through mobilization of human and material resources available in the economy of a country.It facilities trade and opens business opportunities by collecting goods from the producing centres and distributing them to different areas where they are needed.It promotes foreign trading by arranging the distribution of imported goods and collection of indigenous products to be sent abroad it serves as a mean of creating link between the urban and rural sectors and facilitates the movement of the people all over the country.Such movements accelerate social welfare of the people and help the government in maintaining law and order within the country.It also facilitates the arrangement for guarding the frontiers through mobilization of defence store and personnel to the far flung border areas.It supports and compliments the working of other transport systems.Such as rail,air and waterways which have a limitation of not being extendable to every part of a country and as such,their utility as means of mobilization of resources is very much reduced.
Again,road transport does not require a huge investment and the return of investment made in it not spread over a very very long period.Above all,its maintenance cost is also comparatively very low and as such,its development,improvement and expansion can be effected easily and cheaply in comparison to other systems.

Road Transportation in Pakistan:

All the time Pakistan was created there was not much vahiculay traffic on roads except bullock carts and other animal drawn carts .But today the thronged with trucks,buses,station wagons,jeeps,cars and motorcycles.National logistic cell established in 1978 is performing great service by transporting essential commodities to and from Karachi Port Inland.
Although road traffic is increasing rapidly,the density of the road network is still inadequate and the condition of most roads is unsatisfactory in quality,width, and separation of up and down carriageways.Slow moving carts mingle with modern vehicular traffic and accidents and traffic jams are frequent.

Principal Roads:

The main roads of Pakistan are as follows:

1.Karachi to Torkham via Lahore:

This is the longest and an important road of Pakistan.It is also known as the grand trunk road.Its length is about 1735 kilometers.
This road links Karachi Port with other interior parts of our country.The import and export of Afghanistan goes through this road.All the big cities situated on this road are linked with other small towns and villages through small roads.In many regions,this road run parallel to the railway line at some places due to heavy traffic from Hyderabad to Karachi,it has been rebuilt and is known as the Super Highway.This road passes from the following towns and cities.Karachi to Thatta,Hyderabad,Nawabshah,Rohri,Rahimyar Khan,Bahawalpur,Multan,Khanewal,Sahiwal,Okara,Pattoki,Raiwind,Lahore,Gujranwala,Gujrat,Jhelum,Rawalpindi,Nowshera,Peshawar,Torkham.

2.Karachi to Chaman via Kalat and Quetta:

This is the second largest and an important road of Pakistan.Its distance is about 834 kilometers from Karachi to Chaman.This road beginning from Karachi passing through the remote areas of Baluchistan Province,reaches upto ,Chaman,a small border town near the border of Afghanistan.The products of Afghanistan ,such as dry fruits etc.come to Karachi through this road.Besides this the requirements of rural and urban areas of Baluchistan are fulfilled through this road.

3.Rohri to Quetta via Sukkur,Jacobabad-Sibi:

This is third important road of our country.Its distance is about 410 kilometers.This road passing through different parts of Sindh Province,connects various important cities of Baluchistan Province.The products of Baluchistan Province and trade with other province is mainly performed through this road.

4.Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta via Fort Sandeman:

This is also an important road of our country.This road connects the areas of N.W.F.P .with Baluchistan Province.This road also goes from Dera Ismail Khan to Peshawar via Bannu and Kohat.It has strategic and economic importance.The distance from Dera Ismail Khan to Quetta is 555 kilometers.

5.Third National Highway:

On the right bank of Indus River,a big highway is under construction.Its distance from Karachi to Peshawar will be about 1220 kilometers and it is expected that it will be completed upto 1993.This highway will connect the following cities:Karachi,Sewan Sharif,Dadu,Larkana,Shikarpur,Kashmir ,Dera Ghazi Khan,Dera Ismail Khan,Bannu,Kohat and Peshawar.

(B) RAILWAYS

Introduction:

Railways are the convenient and quick means of transport of people and goods particularly heavy items,over long distances.
Pakistan inherited 8554 km.(5315 miles) of railways ,to which much addition has not been made.The extension work has hampered because of difficulties in maintaining and running the existing railways.The locomotives in Pakistan were run by coal.After the creation of Pakistan coal became a scarce commodity .Therefore,Pakistan had to change its engines from coal to diesel which required money and time.Workshop had also to be remodelled to to repair and maintain them.Another problem was the availability of railways are switching to concrete sleepers.At some places metre gauge track has been changed into broad gauge track.Besides this,electrification of Railway track from Lahore to Khanewal has been completed and work of electrification to Samasatta Railway track is under progress.At present, Pakistan Railways comprise of 8775 route kilometers,907 stations and 78 train halts.Its major assets include 753 locomotives,2339 passengers coaches and 34851 freight wagons.

Railway Routes

Following are the principle routes at Pakistan railways:

1.Peshawar to Karachi via Lahore:

This is the main line of Pakistan railway.Its distance from Karachi city to peshawar cantt.is 1045 miles or 1682 kilometers.This line passing through Lahore (Pakistan Railway Headquarter) connects the biggest port of Pakistan(Karachi) with other cities of the country.The following are the important stations situated on this route:Peshawar,Nowshera,Attock,Hasanabdal,Texila,Rawalpindi,Jhelum,Lalamusa,Gujrat,Wazirabad,Gujranwala,Lahore,Raiwind,Pattoki,Okara,Sahiwal,Khanewal,Multan,Bahawalpur,Khanpur,Rahimyar Khan,Rohri,Khairpur,Nawabshah,Hyderabad,Kotri,Karachi.
It is a double line from Lodhran to Karachi and Lahore to Raiwind.Trains can go up and down lines simultaneously,but from Raiwind to Lodhran,it is a single line track and trains have to stop at various stations to pass the trains coming from the opposite site.
Electric trains are being run between Lahore and Khanewal and further extension work is under progress.It is estimated that the expenditure of oil consumption have been reduced due to the use of electricity,and a large amount of foreign exchange is being saved also.

2.Karachi to Quetta via Kotri,Dadu,Jacobabad:

This is also an important route of Pakistan railway.This line connects the port of Karachi with various cities of Baluchistan Province and reaches upto Quetta.This line has been further extended from Quetta to Zahidan via Nokundi ,Its distance is about 323 miles.

3.Rohri to Chaman via Sukkur,Larkana,Quetta,Chaman:

The distance of this route is 239 miles,it reaches from Rohri to Chaman,a town situated near the border of Afghanistan.The products of Afghanistan such as fruits etc.reach various provinces through this route.

4.Peshawar to Multan via Attock,Kundian,Mari Indus,Multan:

This is a branch line which reaches from Multan to Attock and meets the main line.

5.Lalamusa to Khanewal via Sargodha,Faisalabad:

This is also a branch line passing through various commercial centres and meets the main line near Lala Musa.

(C) AIR TRANSPORT

in 1947 a small air company,the Orient Airways,Operated in Pakistan.Two more companies quickly stand up namely the Pak-air Limited and Crescent Airways.By 1952 the two new companies were dissolved.The Orient Airways was too small to meet the growing needs of the country.Therefore,in April 1955,Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is established by an ordinance.The Orient Airways was merged in the new company which now monopolizes air transport in Pakistan.
The Pakistan International Airline has made a phenomenal progress since it Inception.It started its life with a fleet of 15 aircrafts,three super constellation ,two convairs and ten Dakutas.As on February 29,1992 Pia's fleet comprised of 47 aircrafts of different types.
The PIA services are available to some large cities like Karachi,Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Multan, Hyderabad,and Quetta.It also links small places which have transport difficulties like Gilgit ,Chitral,Skurdo,Pasni,Gwadar,Turbal and Jiwani and important historical places,Like Mohenjo Daro.In all PIA serves 35 domestic stations.It has wide links outside Pakistan.It connects many Europeon countries like U.K ,Germany,France,Italy,Russia etc.It goes to U.S.A.It connects most of the countries of the Middle East and a few African countries.It goes to India, Bangladesh, Singapore, Thailand, China, Hong Kong and Japan.In all PIA serves 43 International stations.The result of this expansion has been that the number of the passengers and Cargo handled by PIA has greatly increase in 1955-56 PIA carried 1.1 million passengers which was more than double in flye years time.In 1970-71 and 1971-72 ,There was a little set back because of political disturbances in East Pakistan and its eventual position in 1971.Since then the conditions have started to improve steadily.In ten years time the passenger traffic increased from 1.8 million (1970-71) to 6.5 million (1980-81).The increase was phenomenal rise took place in international traffic from 0.5 million in 1970-71 to 3.2 million in 1981-82.The progress in Cargo handled by PIA as equally glorious.In 1955-56 only 1,00 tons of cargo was carried that increased by about 7 times in five years (1959-60).In other ten years 1970-71 the increase was 3 times.In another ten years (198081),more than three times increase was registered.
Karachi Airport of our country has gained the position of an International Airport. It is a stopping point for flights from Europe to Far East and Australia and also for flights from China to Africa.From Karachi there are connecting flights to various countries of Middle East.PIA'S network extends from Tokyo to Newyork and Toronto.In June,1991,Mashed in Iran as added as a new destination.
In PIA,within a few years engineering facilities will be further developed and production facilities will be geared up to undertake manufacturing and repair work.

2. Waterways

(A)RIVER TRANSPORTATION:

Rivers were the chief means of transportation in ancient times.That is why most of the ancient cities grew up along the courses and at the junctions of rivers.Today,only cheap,bulky and non-perishable goods are carried by rivers.
Rivers are probably the cheapest means of transportation.Expenses such as those involved in the building of roads and railway tracks are avoided as the running cost of boats is low.When compared with that of engines and trains .In mountainous regions of our country ,timber wood is transported by means of rivers.There is insufficient water in our rivers all the year round for large boats to use them easily.The Indus carries sufficient water and is navigable from Attock to its delta which is about a distance of 960 miles.Different kinds of Items such as timber,grains,stones etc.,are transported from one place to another with the help of small boats.

(B)OCEAN TRANSPORTATION

The import and export of Pakistan are mainly carried through Ocean transport.

Shipping:

Pakistan is started its life with a frail base in shipping sector.There were three old ships with a dead weight of 18,000 tons.Almost all the goods from foreign countries were brought on foreign ships and heavy drain of foreign exchange was taking place.The government therefore became a member of U.K.Continent Conference line .More than 40 ships began to operate.Further expansion of shipping enterprise was felt necessary.In 1963 a new shipping policy was adopted which among other things,sanctioned the purchase of 35 ships.During the same year National Shipping Corporation was established.Its ship began to operate on U.K.continent route and U.S.A. in 1964.In 1965,its ships started to go to Singapore,Hong Kong ,China and Japan.In 1966,Red sea and Persian Gulf areas were tapped.By 1970 the corporation had 31 vessels with dead weight of 336,931 tonnes.Besides there were 40 ships owned by other companies established in Pakistan.These 71 Pakistani ships were handling the entire interwing trade (East Pakistan-West Pakistan trade) and 14 % of the foreign sea-borne trade and could carry 6600 passengers.In 1974,th e private shipping companies were nationalized.To manage them Pakistan shipping corporation was established.In 1979,the two corporations were merged under the name of Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC).The PNSC's development programme includes the acquisition of a bulk carrier for shipments of rock phosphate,an edible oil tanker for shipments of palm oil,four bulk carriers for shipments of iron ore and coal imported by Pakistan Steel and three container vessels for handling containerized general cargo trade.
At present there are 22 vessels owned by PNSC.The corporation has a dead weight of 352,716 tons.During the first half of the year ending December31,1991 the corporation handled 2.74 million freight tonnes of cargo as against 2.77 million freight tons during the previous-half year ending December 31,1990.

1. Karachi Port:

Located west of the Indus Delta on the Arabian Sea coast,Karachi Port has served Pakistan since its inception.Karachi is a natural harbour sheltered behind the island of Keamari and a break-water at Manora. Karachi,a major port by world standards,is Pakistan's only large port.It has a vast hinterland comprising not merely Pakistan and that part of Kashmir which is not under indian occupation but also Afghanistan.The port has more than 25 berths,plus a petroleum dock.The East Wharf ,constructed over 50 years ago,has been modernized.The West Wharves and a dry dock for the construction and repair of ships have been built since independence.The ports dry general cargo handling capacity,though considerably increased in the past,is still less than the actual amount of cargo handled,the two respectively being C and over 14 million tons per annum.As a result,the harbour is very crowded,with most ships double-berthed,and long delays in entering the port are usual .Much has been done to improve the port in four projects .The fourth project of Karachi port included,among other works,the construction of 75,000 dead weight oil tanker berth.It has improve the old handling capacity of the port from 5 to 10 million tonnes per annum.A master plan had been prepared for the development of the port and the first set of 8 berths,with modern container terminals,was completed by 1987-88.The dry general cargo handling capacity of the port improved by 2 million tonnes.

Cargo Handling:

During the first nine months of the Financial year ending March 1992,the Karachi port handled a cargo volume of 14.7 million tons (11 million tons of import and 3.7 million tons of export) ,which is 4.2% above the corresponding period of the previous year.

2. Port Mohammed Bin Qasim:

In view of the increasing work the Karachi Port had to perform,the necessity of a new port was felt.After examining a number of areas,finally a site for the new port was selected at Pilli Creek,close to Pakistan Steel Mill.In June 1973,Port Mohammed Bin Qasim Authority was established and the work on the port was started.Port Mohammed Bin Qasim,which is the first bulk,semi bulk and industrial port of the country is situated 53 kilometers south east of the Karachi Port.
Besides handling general cargo like rice,cement,fertilizers etc.the port will have special facilities for handling iron ore, coal and steel mill machinery.In the first phase the port shall have 8 berths and 12 more will be added in the second phase.Most of the work in phase 1 has been completed and the port has started functioning.

Cargo Handling:

Cargo handled at Port Bin Qasim during July March 1991-92 was 5.768 million tonnes,including 5.152 million tonnes of import and 0.616 million tonnes of export goods.

Foreign Trade of Pakistan

INTRODUCTION

When Pakistan came into being her economy was completely based on agriculture.The experts consisted of agricultural products only.For the economic development of the country there was need for diversification of her trade and a change in her pattern.The government of Pakistan decided to industrialize the country as rapidly as possible.Export promotion was regarded as one of the highest national commitments by the government.Various measures were adopted for export improvement.Pakistan participated in International Trade Conferences and Fairs.The Export Promotion Bureau and Export Promotion Council were set up to provide assistance and information to potential foreign buyers.A large number of concessions and incentives were given to the export trade section etc.As a result the pattern of trade in Pakistan changed.Experts increased and now these include industrial finished products as well as raw materials.
In spite of the different measures taken by the government for boosting the export,still our imports are greater than the exports.The balance of trade is unfavourable and deficit.

The year 1991-92 was estimated to have closed with a balance of payment deficit of dollar 2.6 billion plus.Indeed as far as one may go back the balance of payment has been in the red, with the figure hovering over dollar 1 billion through out the last ten years or so.

CHIEF EXPORT ITEMS OF PAKISTAN

Following are the main items which may be included in our export list:

1.Cotton:

Cotton ranks at the top of the export list of Pakistan.Pakistan occupies first position in Asia and second position in the world as an exporter of cotton and cotton products.Export of Raw cotton,cotton cloth and cotton yarn together contribute approximately 40 to 42% to the total export earning of Pakistan.Karachi with the cotton growing hinterland has almost the monopoly of the trade.

(a) Cotton Cloth:

Cotton fabrics are at the top of our export list.We export a large amount of cotton cloth every year.Due to increasing demand,its export has gone higher enough.
Some of the customers of cotton cloth are U.K,U.S..,U.S.S.R., Hong Kong,Japan,Singapore,W.Germany and Sudan.

(b) Cotton Yarn :

It is another important export item of our country.Its export is increasing every year. Important Customers are Japan,U.K,Hong Kong,W.Germany,U.S.A.,Sri Lanka,and Burma.

(c) Raw Cotton:

Pakistan grows surplus amount of best quality long staple American Upland Cotton which is very much demanded all over the world.Our main customers of raw cotton are U.K.,China,Japan,Hong Kong,Belgium,Indonesia,Italy,Singapore and Bangladesh.

2.Rice:

Pakistan has emerged as one of the leading exporters of rice .In the previous years rice was at the top of our export list but due to fluctuation in the world market,its demand has decreased.Best qualities like Basmati and Irri-6 are exported.Pakistan exports rice to almost all the Gulf States and Middle Eastern,European,East Asian and some African countries.

3.Carpets,Rugs And Mats:

Pakistan earns a large amount of foreign exchange by exporting very fine quality carpets (both hand and machine made) rugs and mats.Due to heavy competition in world's market their demand is increasing.
U.S.A. is an important buyer of Pakistani carpets,rugs and mats.Other customers are mostly European countries including France,U.K.,Italy,Switzerland,W.Germany,Belgium etc.

4.Fish And Fish Preparations :

Fish is exported,fresh,canned and dried.Shrimps are exported to Japan and U.S.A. canned fish finds its market mostly in W.Europe.Middle Eastern and South Asian countries (specially Sri Lanka) are also important customers of Pakistani fish and fish preparation.

5.Leather And Hides:

Pakistan produces hides and skin worth approximately 2 crore every year of which 40 % are exported.Now,because of leather industries in our country export of hides and skin.Italy,Spain,Japan,France,China,Romania,W.Germany etc.are important markets in this regard.

6.Synthetic Textile Products:

Pakistani Synthetic Textle Products are popular in various foreign countries.Thes are mainly exported to Middle Eastern,African and South american countries.

7.Petroleum Products:

There are 3 oil refineries in Pakistan where crude petroleum is imported and a number of petroleum products are being produced.Some of the surplus products are exported to India,Turkey,Sri Lanka,Singapore etc.

8.Sports Goods:

Pakistan has a worthy name in exporting sports goods to more than 100 countries,principally to W.Germany,U.K.,Italy,U.S.A.,France etc.

9.Surgical Instruments:

Pakistan is also exporting surgical equipments to China,Japan,America and Canada.
Besides the above mentioned items,Pakistan exports a number of miscellaneous items like raw wool,Tobacco,Fruits,Vegetables etc . to various countries.
CHIEF IMPORT ITEMS OF PAKISTAN
Following are the main items of our country:
1.Mineral Oil:
Our country is not self sufficient in our mineral oil requirements.The present oil production of our own country meets only about 24% of the country's requirements.So to meet the deficiency,we have to import a large amount of mineral oil from other countries.We import mineral oil from Saudi Arabia,Iran,U.A.E and other Middle East countries.
2.Machinery:
As our country is in its developing stage,we have to import different kinds of machinery to meet the demands of various industries.The machines are usually imported from Japan,U.S.A. and Europeian countries.
3.Edible Oil:
The production of edible oil is is not sufficient to meet the demand of our Ghee industry.Although the government has taken various measures to boost up the production of oil seeds,but inspite of those our country is still deficient in edible oil so we have to import enough amount of edible oil e.g. soyabean oil from U.S.A. and Palm oil from Malaysia and Indonesia.
4.Chemicals And Drugs:
The economy of our country mainly demands on agriculture,so to get higher yield from different crops spray of various chemicals is essential.Thus to meet all these demands of our agricultural sector,we have to import various kinds of chemicals and drugs from other countries.The chemicals and drugs are mainly imported from Japan,Germany,U.S.A.,U.K., and other European countries.
5.Dyes And Colours:
Various Industries of our country use a number of dyes and colours as raw material in their products such as textile,inting etc. so to meet the demand of all these industries,various kinds of colours and dyes are imported.These colours and dyes are mainly imported from Japan ,U.K.,U.S.A. etc.
6.Tea:
Our country produces a very small quantity of tea which is sufficient to meet the demand of our country.So various tea companies port huge amount of tea.Tea is mainly imported from Sri Lanka,Bangladesh,India and Kenya.
7.Electric Goods:
Different kinds of electrical goods are needed in our country .The local industries are not in in the position to meet the required demand so we have to import a large number of electric goods from Japan,S.A.,U.K. and other European countries.
8.Transport Equipments:
Our country needs different kinds of transport equipments e.g. buses,cars,rickshaws,motorcycles.So demand of these are high and hence they are imported from Japan,Italy and other countries.
9.Paper And Paper Products:
Before 1971,we had a number of paper mills our eastern wing and our requirements were fulfilled from the eastern .Although,after 1971 some paper mills were set up in the wster wing,are still deficient in paper especially in paper for newspaper industry.We have to import a large amount of news print paper and other kinds of paper from Cnada,Japan,Sweden,U.S.A. etc.
DIRECTION OF TRADE
The global concentration of Pakistan's trade can be broadly classified to the following major groups of countries:
1.West European Countries:
In this group U.K.,France,W.Germany,Belgium,Nether lands and other Scandinavian countries can be included:These countries are the main buyers of our export goods e.g.Cotton cloth , ,carpets,rugs,sports goods and many other items and we import machines,electric goods,chemicals and various other items from these countries.Our exports are less in comparison to the imports from these countries and balance of trade is in favour of these countries.
2.Middle East Countries:
Saudi Arabia,Iraq,U.A.E. and other Arab countries can be included in this group.These countries are the top buyers of our export goods,such as rice,cotton cloth and various other items,but due to oil crises and Iran-Iraq war,our export to these countries has declined to some extent, but our imports from these countries have increased enough.We import mineral oil and various other items from these countries.Thus due to heavy imports from these countries,the balance of trade is in their favour.
3.Asian Countries:
Japan,Hong Kong,China,Singapore,Malaysia,Indonesia and various other countries can be included in this group.Our exports to these countries has been decreasing every year,and imports have increase too much so due to these circumstance the balance of trade go in the favour of these countries.Japan is the top buyer of our export goods in Asian countries,but we have to import large amount of machinery,chemicals,transport equipments and various other items from Japan.Besides Japan we do trade with others.Asian countries,such as we import palm oil from Malaysia and Indonesia and Tea from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
4.North American Countries:
U.S.A.,Mexico,Canada and other countries can be included in this group.The exports of our country to North American group is not progressive,but we import so many kinds of goods,such as machinery,electrical goods,soybean oil and requirements for our armed forces and various other items,and our imports are about three times greater than our exports.So due to all these conditions the balance of trade remains in favour of these countries.
5.R.C.D. Countries:
In this group are included Iran,Turkey and newly Independent Central Asian Republics namely Tajikistan,Uzbekistan,Azerbaijan and Turkmanistan.Pakistani exports to Turkey and Iran are quite enough.Although all these countries are trying to make their balances of trade favourable,but inspite of various measures taken by the concerned countries still Pakistan's imports are greater than exports,so the balance of trade remains to the favour of these countries.
6.East European Countries:
This group includes countries of eastern Europe such as Poland, U.S.S.R., Romania, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Greece and others.Such countries import large amount of our export goods such as rice, cotton cloth, sports goods,carpets and various other items ,but our imports are comparatively less than our exports,so balance of trade is in favour of our country.
Besides the above we do trade with so many African,central and South American countries and also the various Asian and Oceania countries.

Short Questions

SHORT QUESTIONS

1.Area of Pakistan.
Ans.Area of Pakistan is 796095 sq.km. or 310403 miles.

2.Total Population of Pakistan.
Ans.According to the census of March 1991,the local population of Pakistan is 83782000.As on January 1,1992 the population was estimated to be 117.32 million.

3.Important Mountains.
Ans.The Himaliyas,The Karakoram,The Hindukush,The Suleman mountains,Koh Safes etc.

4.Rivers of Pakistan.
Ans.The Indus,the Sutlej,the Ravi ,the Chenab,The Jhelum,River Swat,River Kabul,River Bolan etc.

5.Important "Doabs" of Pakistan.
The land which lies between the two rivers is known as "Doab" e.g.Bari Doab,Rachna Doab,Chaj Doab and Sind Sagar Doab.

6.The plateaus of Pakistan.
Ans.Potwar Plateau and Baluchistan Plateau.

7.Passes of Pakistan.
Ans.Khyber Pass,Bolan Pass,Tochi Pass,Gomal Pass,Lawari Pass etc.

8.Deserts of Pakistan.
Ans.Thal Desert,Cholistan Desert,Nara Desert and Thar Desert.

9.Climatic regions of Pakistan.
Ans.1.Sub-tropical continental highlands.
2.Sub-tropical continental lowlands.
3.Sub-tropical continental plateau.
4.Tropical coast lands.

10.Climatic Seasons of Pakistan.
Ans.1.Winter Season (from November to February)
2.Summer Season (from March to June)
3.Rainy Season (from July to October)

11.Administrative Divisions of Pakistan.
Ans.Pakistan comprises of four provinces with Federal Capital Islamabad.The Provinces are Punjab,Sindh,N.W.F.P. and Baluchistan.

12.Dry ports of Pakistan.
Ans.Lahore dry port,Quetta and Sialkot dry ports.

13.Sea ports of Pakistan.
Ans.Karachi port and Port Qasim.

14.Important Dams.
Ans.Mangla dam,Tarbela dam and Warsak dam.

15.Important Barrages.
Ans.Chashma Barrage,Guddu Barrage,Taunsa Barrage,Jinnah Barrage etc.

16.What are the food crops of Pakistan.
Ans.Rice ,Wheat,Barley and Corn.

17.Name the main agricultural products of Pakistan.
Ans.Wheat,Cotton,barley,rice,sugar cane,millets(Jawar and bajra),grams and tobacco.

18.What are the main mineral resources of Pakistan.
Ans.Coal,natural gas,chromite,gypsum,petroleum,iron,ore,rock salt and copper.

19.What are the main industrial centres of Pakistan.
Ans.Karachi,Hyderabad,Faisalabad,Lahore,Multan,Quetta,Rawalpindi,Nowshera,Kotri,Gujranwala,Peshawar.

20.What are the main industries of Pakistan.
Ans.Cotton Textile Industry,Cement Industry,Sugar Cane Industry,Woolen Textile Industry.

21.Main Imports of Pakistan.
Ans.Mineral Oil,Edible Oil,dyes and colours,machineries,chemicals and drugs,tea,paper.

22.Main exports of Pakistan.
Ans.Cotton cloth,cotton yarn,raw cotton,rice,carpets,rugs,leather,synthetic textile,fish and their products.





FACT SHEET: The international fish trade and world fisheries
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
THE GLOBAL FISH TRADE*
Trade volumes
A large share of all fish production enters international marketing
channels, with 37% (live weight equivalent) being exported in 2006.
Value of exports In 2006, total world exports of fish and fish products reached a record
value of US$85.9 billion, a 55% increase from 2000.
Value of imports Fish imports rose 49% from 2000 to 2006, reaching a new record of over
US$89.6 billion. Developed countries accounted for about 80% of
imports, in value terms.
Top exporters China (exports valued at US$9
billion)
Norway (US$5.5 billion)
Thailand (US$5.2 billion)
USA (US$4.1 billion)
Denmark (US$4 billion)
Canada (US$3.7 billion)
Chile (US$3.6 billion)
Viet Nam (US$3.4 billion)
Spain (US$2.8 billion)
Netherlands (US$2.8 billion).
Top importers Japan (US$14.0 billion worth of
imports)
USA (US$13.3 billion)
Spain (US$6.4 billion)
France (US$5.1 billion)
Italy (US$4.7 billion)
China (US$4.1 billion)
Germany (US$3.7 billion).
United Kingdom (US$3.7 billion)
Denmark (US$2.8 billion)
Korea Republic (US$2.7 billion).
Top commodities Shrimp continues to be the most important commodity traded in value
terms, accounting for 16.6% of the total value of internationally traded
fish products in 2006. The other main groups of exported species were
groundfish (10.5%: e.g. hake, cod, haddock and Alaska pollock),
salmon (10.7%) and tuna (7.7%). In 2006, fishmeal represented around
3.5% of the value of exports and fish oil less than 1%.
Developing
countries &
global fish trade
The share of developing countries in total fishery exports was 49% by
value and 59% by quantity in 2006. The net exports of fish by developing
countries (i.e. the total value of their exports less the total value of their
imports) has shown a continuing rising trend over recent decades,
growing from US$7.2 billion in 1986 to US$16.7 in 1996 to US$24.6
billion in 2006. These figures were significantly higher than those for
other agricultural commodities such as rice, coffee and tea.
Employment In 2006, 43.5 million people directly engaged in primary production of
fish, either in capture fishery or in aquaculture.
*All figures for 2006
EUROPE & GERMANY
THE FISH TRADE & EUROPE
Imports to
Europe
In 2006, European country imports of fish and fishery products reached
US$41.3 billion. The 27 European community countries (EC-27) continued
to expand their dependency on imports for their fish supply. The value of
these imports reached US$37.5 billion in 2006 (+85% since 2000 and
+14% since 2005). Yet 45% of these imports had an intra-EU-27 origin.
In 2006, in value terms, salmon was the main species imported by
European countries (14% of total imports of fish and fishery products)
followed by shrimps and prawns (13%). Other favoured species were cod
(10%), tuna (7%), cephalopods (5%) and freshwater fish (4%).
Top exporters to
Europe
In 2006, in value terms, 59% of the European imports of fish and fishery
products originated from other European countries. Major suppliers were
Norway (11%), Denmark (7%), Spain (6%), the Netherlands (5%) and
China (4%). Other leading non-European suppliers were the USA (3%),
Morocco (3%), Argentina (2%) , Viet Nam (2%) and Chile (1%).
Exports from
Europe
In 2006, EU-27 exports of fish products were valued at US$21.6 billion,
representing a growth of 83% since 2000. About 85% were destined to
other EU-27 countries. (The increase of EU-27 imports and exports is also
due to the appreciation of European currencies against the US dollar.)
In 2006, in value terms, salmon was also the main species exported (19%
of the value of all EC-27 exports of fish and fishery products. Salmon was
mainly exported in fresh or chilled form. Other top species exported were
cod (12%), shrimps (8%), tunas (5%), herrings (4%) and mackerel (3%).
Exports from
Europe
In 2006, 86% of the value of EC-27 exports was directed to other
European countries. France was the main market ( 12% of exports), then
Italy (11%), Germany (9%), Spain (8%) and the UK (8%). Major non-
European markets were Japan (3%), China (2%) and Nigeria (1%).
THE FISH TRADE & GERMANY
Trade flows Germany, with imports valued at US$3.7 billion, was the world’s seventh
largest importer of fish and fish products and the fifteenth exporter
(US$1.8 billion in 2006).
Countries
exporting to
Germany
In 2006, in value terms, main suppliers to Germany were Denmark, the
Netherlands, China, Poland, Norway, Peru, Chile, Russian Federation
and Thailand. 46% of German fishery imports originated from the EU-27 .
German exports In 2006, France, the Netherlands, Austria, Italy, UK, Denmark and
Belgium represented the main outlets for German exports of fish, in value
terms. 88% of its exports were directed to EU-27 countries.
Top commodities Marine fish including salmons, cods, herrings, tunas are the most
important commodity traded in Germany. In 2006, salmon made up 22.9%
of the total value of traded fish products, followed by cods (including hake,
cods, haddock and Alaska Pollack) at 19.8%, and shrimp (7.4%).
Consumption In 2005, German per caput fish consumption was 14.8/kg, with fish
representing a share of 7.8% in animal proteins and 4.7% in total proteins.
On average, per capita fish consumption in the EU-27 is of about 22/kg,
with fish having a share of about 10% of total animal proteins and 6% of
total proteins. World-wide, per capita consumption is estimated at 16.5/kg,
with fish accounting for 15.5% of animal proteins and 5.9% of all proteins.
FISHERIES PRODUCTION
FISHERIES & AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION
Global production Total global fishery production from capture fisheries and aquaculture
combined reached 144 million tonnes in 2006, with 36% of that coming
from aquaculture. With aquaculture excluded, world global capture
fisheries production in 2006 was 92 million tonnes.
European
production
During the 1997-2006 period, total catches by the EU-27 countries
decreased by 26%, from 7.6 to 5.7 million tonnes. Poland, Denmark and
Greece are the countries which most reduced most their catches in the
last decade. These figures include catches in inland waters and from
distant water fleets.
Top fishing
countries,
worldwide
The ranking of top ten capture fishery producing countries has been quite
stable since 1992, with China, Peru and the United States occupying
the top three positions since 2001.
Top fishing
countries, Europe
The main capture-fisheries countries among the EU-27 are Spain,
Denmark, the United Kingdom and France, all producing over
0.5 million tonnes in 2006. Germany, with almost 0.3 million tonnes,
ranked seventh among the EU countries
Top species,
worldwide & in
Europe
The most caught species at the global level is by far the Peruvian
anchoveta (7 million tonnes in 2006). It is followed by Alaska pollock,
skipjack tuna, Atlantic herring and blue whiting. Atlantic herring is
the most caught species by the EU-27 countries, followed by European
sprat, blue whiting and Atlantic mackerel.
Top species,
Germany
The top species in German catches in 2006 were Atlantic herring,
European sprat and blue whiting.
Top aquaculture
countries,
worldwide
China is by far the leading aquaculture producer, accounting for about
two thirds of world aquaculture production. The other major aquaculture
producing countries are India, Viet Nam, Thailand, and Indonesia. The
EU-27 account for 2.5% of world aquaculture production (1.3 million
tonnes in 2006).
Top aquaculture
countries, Europe
Main aquaculture producing countries in 2006 among the EU-27 were
Spain, France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Greece. Germany, with
35 thousands tonnes, ranked tenth among the EU countries
Top cultured
species, worldwide
Various carps are the major species group cultured, accounting for 40%
of production in weight, followed by other fresh water fishes and oysters.
Whiteleg shrimp and Atlantic salmon are two major cultured species in
value followed by silver carp, Grass carp, and Giant tiger prawn. Sea
mussel is the species most widely cultured by the EU-27 countries,
followed by rainbow trout, blue mussel, and Atlantic salmon.
Top cultured
species, Germany
Top species in 2006 German aquaculture production were rainbow
trout, common carp and blue mussel.
Al
Source: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO
http://www.fao.org/fishery/



3 comments:

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    M.Furqan
    0345-6068657
    furqanzulqarnain1gmail.com

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